Hindu

Daripada Wikipedia, ensiklopedia bebas
Lompat ke: pandu arah , cari
Sebuah artikel yang berkaitan untuk
Hindu
Om.svg

Hindu adalah dominan agama [1] [2] daripada benua kecil India , terutamanya India dan Nepal . Hindu termasuk Shaivism , Vaishnavism dan Shrauta kalangan pelbagai tradisi lain. Antara amalan-amalan dan falsafah yang lain, termasuk Hindu yang luas undang-undang dan preskripsi "moral harian" berdasarkan karma , dharma , dan norma-norma masyarakat. Hindu adalah pengkategorian mata intelektual atau falsafah yang berbeza pandangan, bukannya tegar, set biasa kepercayaan. [3]

Hindu terdiri daripada banyak tradisi yang pelbagai dan tidak mempunyai pengasas tunggal. [4] Walaupun dalam zaman moden India digambarkan kebanyakannya sebagai "Aryan, Sanskrit, Brahmanical" [5] , di kalangan akar langsung agama Hindu adalah agama Vedik sejarah dari Zaman Besi India [6] tetapi juga Dravidia [7] [8] [nota 1] dan puak [10] budaya India. Oleh itu, Hindu sering dipanggil " agama hidup tertua " [11] atau "agama tertua hidup utama" di dunia. [1] [12] [13] [14] Sejak zaman Vedik, proses Sanskritisasi telah berlaku, di mana "orang dari banyak lapisan masyarakat di seluruh benua kecil itu cenderung untuk menyesuaikan diri dengan kehidupan agama dan sosial mereka kepada norma-norma Brahman". [15]

Satu klasifikasi ortodoks teks Hindu adalah untuk membahagikan mereka kepada Śruti ("mendedahkan") dan Smriti ("diingati") teks. [6] Ayat-ayat ini membincangkan teologi , falsafah , mitos , Vedik Yajna dan agamic ritual dan pembinaan kuil di kalangan topik lain. [6] kitab-kitab utama termasuk Veda , Upanishad , Purana , Mahabharata , Ramayana , Manusmriti , Bhagavad Gita dan Agamas . [6]

Hindu, dengan kira-kira satu bilion pengikut [16] (950 juta dianggarkan dalam India), [17] adalah agama ketiga terbesar di dunia , selepas Kristian dan Islam .

Etimologi

Walmiki , sezaman dengan Rama , menggubah yang Ramayana .

The Hindu perkataan berasal (melalui Parsi ) dari bahasa Sanskrit perkataan Sindhu, nama tempatan yang bersejarah bagi Sungai Indus di bahagian barat laut dari benua kecil India . The Sindhu perkataan pertama yang disebut dalam Rigveda . [18] [19] [20]

The Hindu perkataan diambil dari dari Bahasa Arab istilah al-Hind, dengan bahasa-bahasa Eropah, merujuk kepada negeri orang-orang yang tinggal di Sungai Indus. [21] ini sendiri diambil daripada Hindu panjang Parsi, yang merujuk kepada semua kaum India . Menjelang abad ke-13, Hindustan muncul sebagai alternatif yang popular nama India , yang bermaksud "tanah Hindu". [22]

Agama Hindu jangka kemudiannya disebut kadang-kadang dalam sesetengah teks Sanskrit, seperti kemudian Rajataranginis Kashmir (Hinduka, c. 1450), dan beberapa ke-16 hingga abad ke-18 Bengali Gaudiya Vaishnava teks, termasuk Chaitanya Charitamrita dan Chaitanya Bhagavata . Ia biasanya digunakan untuk membezakan orang-orang Hindu dengan Yavanas atau Mlecchas . [23] Ia hanya pada penghujung abad ke-18 yang pedagang Eropah dan penjajah mula merujuk kepada pengikut agama India kolektif sebagai Hindu. Agama Hindu istilah telah diperkenalkan ke dalam bahasa Inggeris dalam abad ke-19 untuk menunjukkan agama, falsafah dan budaya tradisi berasal dari India.

Definisi

The Triveni Sangam , atau persimpangan Yamuna River, Sungai Ganges dan mitos Saraswati sungai.
Mangal Mahadev, 108 kaki patung Tuhan Siva di Ganga Talao , Mauritius

Pluralisme

Hindu bukan sahaja salah satu daripada agama berangka terbesar, tetapi juga yang hidup tertua tradisi utama di dunia, dengan akar mencapai kembali ke prasejarah. [24] Ia digambarkan sebagai kedua-dua yang tertua agama di dunia ini, dan yang paling pelbagai. [ 1] [25] [26] [27]

Hindu ditakrifkan sebagai agama atau sebagai tradisi agama, atau sebagai satu set kepercayaan agama. [2]

Hindu tidak mempunyai "sistem bersepadu kepercayaan dikodkan dalam deklarasi iman atau kepercayaan ", [28] tetapi agak istilah payung yang merangkumi kepelbagaian fenomena agama yang berasal dan berdasarkan tradisi Vedik . [29] [30] [ 31] [32]

Masalah dengan definisi tunggal apa sebenarnya yang dimaksudkan dengan istilah 'Hindu' yang sering dikaitkan dengan hakikat bahawa agama Hindu tidak mempunyai pengasas sejarah tunggal atau biasa. Hindu, atau ada yang mengatakan 'Hinduisms,' tidak mempunyai satu sistem keselamatan dan mempunyai matlamat yang berbeza mengikut setiap mazhab atau denominasi. Menurut mahkamah Agung India "tidak seperti agama-agama lain di dunia, agama Hindu tidak menuntut apa-apa seorang Nabi, ia tidak menyembah satu Tuhan, ia tidak percaya dalam mana-mana satu konsep falsafah, ia tidak mengikuti mana-mana satu perbuatan daripada upacara keagamaan atau persembahan, pada hakikatnya, ia tidak memenuhi ciri-ciri tradisional agama atau kepercayaan. Ia adalah satu cara hidup dan tidak lebih ". [14] [33]

Persamaan

Kebanyakan Hindu tradisi menghormati badan agama atau suci sastera itu, Veda , walaupun terdapat pengecualian. Sesetengah tradisi agama Hindu menganggap ritual tertentu sebagai penting untuk keselamatan, tetapi pelbagai pandangan mengenai perkara ini bersama-sama. Beberapa falsafah Hindu postulat a teistik ontologi penciptaan, rezeki, dan kemusnahan alam semesta, namun beberapa Hindu adalah atheis . Hindu kadang-kadang disifatkan oleh kepercayaan dalam penjelmaan semula ( samsara ), ditentukan oleh undang-undang karma , dan idea bahawa keselamatan adalah kebebasan dari kitaran ini lahir berulang dan kematian. Walau bagaimanapun, agama-agama lain di rantau ini, seperti Buddha , Jainisme dan Sikh , juga percaya kepada karma, di luar skop agama Hindu. [28] Oleh itu, Hindu dilihat sebagai yang paling kompleks semua yang hidup, agama sejarah dunia. [34 ]

Pemahaman Asli

Satu takrifan agama Hindu adalah lebih rumit dengan penggunaan kerap istilah " iman "sebagai sinonim untuk" agama ". [28] Beberapa ahli akademik [35] dan banyak pengamal merujuk kepada Hindu menggunakan definisi yang asli, sanatana Dharma, yang bahasa Sanskrit frasa yang bermaksud "yang kekal undang-undang ", atau" cara yang kekal ". [36] [37]

Untuk penganutnya, Hindu adalah cara hidup tradisional, [38] dan kerana pelbagai tradisi dan idea-idea yang dimasukkan ke dalam atau ditutup oleh itu, tiba di definisi lengkap istilah ini bermasalah. [28]

Satu takrifan agama Hindu, yang diberikan oleh Naib Presiden pertama India, yang juga seorang ahli teologi terkemuka, Sarvepalli Radhakrishnan, menyatakan bahawa agama Hindu tidak "hanya iman", tetapi dengan sendirinya adalah berkaitan dengan kesatuan pemikiran dan gerak hati . Radhakrishnan jelas menyatakan bahawa agama Hindu tidak boleh ditakrifkan, tetapi hanya untuk dialami. [39]

Pemahaman Barat

Ciri-ciri toleransi menyeluruh kepada perbezaan dalam kepercayaan, dan keterbukaan agama Hindu itu, menjadikan ia sukar untuk menentukan sebagai agama yang sesuai dengan konsep tradisional Barat. [40]

Beberapa ahli akademik mencadangkan bahawa agama Hindu boleh dilihat sebagai satu kategori dengan "tepi kabur", dan bukannya sebagai sebuah entiti yang jelas dan tegar. Beberapa bentuk ungkapan agama adalah penting kepada agama Hindu, manakala yang lain tidak sebagai pusat tetapi masih berada di dalam kategori. Berdasarkan ini, Ferro-Luzzi telah membangunkan sebuah 'Prototaip Teori Pendekatan' dengan takrif agama Hindu. [41]

Pengaruh penjajah

Kajian di India dan budaya dan agama yang telah dibentuk oleh kepentingan penjajahan dan tanggapan barat agama. [42] [43] Sejak tahun 1990-an, orang-orang pengaruh dan hasil yang telah menjadi topik perdebatan di kalangan ulama agama Hindu [42 ] [nota 2] , dan juga telah diambil alih oleh pengkritik pandangan barat di India. [44] [nota 3]

Tanggapan "Hindu" sebagai "satu tradisi agama dunia" [45] telah dibangunkan oleh Indologists Eropah abad ke-19, yang bergantung pada "kasta Brahmana" [45] untuk maklumat mereka agama India. [45] Ini membawa kepada a "kecenderungan untuk menekankan Vedik dan teks Brahmanical dan kepercayaan sebagai" intipati "keagamaan Hindu secara umum, dan dalam persatuan moden 'doktrin Hindu' dengan pelbagai sekolah Brahmanical daripada Vedanta (khususnya Advaita Vedanta)". [46 ]

Sweetman mengenal pasti beberapa kawasan di mana "tidak besar, jika tidak universal, perjanjian yang dipengaruhi penjajahan kajian Hindu": [47]

  1. Penubuhan asas teks untuk agama Hindu oleh Orientalis Eropah, serupa dengan budaya Protestan. [47] Pertubuhan ini juga didorong oleh keutamaan kuasa penjajah untuk kebenaran bertulis daripada pihak berkuasa oral. [47]
  2. Pengaruh Brahmin pada pembinaan Eropah agama Hindu. [47] Kolonialisme telah menjadi faktor penting dalam pengukuhan Brahmana kasta, dan "brahmanisation" [48] dalam masyarakat Hindu. [48] The kasta Brahmana dipelihara teks yang tidak dikaji oleh orang Eropah, dan menyediakan akses kepada mereka. Kuasa teks-teks diperbesarkan oleh kajian teks-teks oleh orang Eropah. [47] Brahmin dan Eropah ulama berkongsi perspektif yang sama dalam persepsi "penurunan umum dari agama yang asalnya tulen". [47]
  3. Pengenalan Vedanta , dan khususnya Advaita Vedanta , sebagai "contoh paradigmatik sifat mistik agama Hindu" [47] [nota 4] dan "falsafah pusat penganut Hindu". [47] Beberapa faktor membantu dalam memihak Advaita Vedanta: [49]
    1. Takut pengaruh Perancis, terutamanya kesan daripada Revolusi Perancis , harapan adalah bahawa "pendiam sepatutnya dan sifat consrvative pemikiran Vedantic akan menghalang pembangunan sentimen revolusi; [50]
    2. "Penguasaan Idealisme pada abad kesembilan belas falsafah Eropah ", [51]
    3. "The amenability daripada Vedantic dianggap kedua-dua Kristian dan pengkritik Hindu 'berhala' dalam formsd lain agama Hindu". [51]
  4. Pembinaan Eropah kasta, yang menafikan bekas konfigurasi politik, dan berkeras atas suatu "watak dasarnya agama" di India. [52] Semasa zaman penjajahan, kasta diwakili sebagai satu sistem agama, dan bercerai daripada kuasa politik. [51] Ini memungkinkan penjajah untuk menggambarkan India sebagai sebuah masyarakat yang dicirikan oleh keharmonian rohani, tetapi untuk menggambarkan bekas negeri India sebagai "zalim dan epiphenomenal" [51] , dengan kuasa penjajah menyediakan perlu "baik hati, peraturan kebapaan oleh lebih negara 'maju' ". [51] Ia juga menyumbang kepada peranan penting agama dalam perjuangan kebebasan India, kerana agama adalah kawasan di mana kuasa-kuasa India telah terkurung. [ rujukan? ]
  5. Pembinaan 'Hindu' dalam imej agama Kristian [53] , sebagai ", pengakuan, semua-memeluk agama entiti sistematik". [53] Beberapa pasukan memainkan peranan dalam pembinaan ini:
    1. Biasiswa Eropah yang dikaji India, [53]
    2. The "tindakan dasar kerajaan penjajah", [53]
    3. Anti-penjajah Hindu [54] "melihat ke arah systematisation amalan berbeza sebagai satu cara untuk memulihkan satu precolonial, identiti antional". [53] [nota 5]

Tipologi

The Swaminarayan Akshardham Temple di Delhi , menurut yang Guinness World Records adalah Terbesar Komprehensif Kuil Hindu di Dunia [55]

Hindu kerana ia telah diketahui umum boleh dibahagikan kepada beberapa arus utama. Pembahagian sejarah kepada enam darsanas , hanya dua sekolah, Vedanta dan Yoga , terus hidup. Bahagian-bahagian utama agama Hindu hari ini Vaishnavism , Shaivism , Shaktism dan Smartism . [56] Hindu juga mengakui banyak makhluk-makhluk ilahi kepada Makhluk Agung atau menganggap mereka sebagai manifestasi yang lebih rendah daripada itu. [57] ciri-ciri penting yang lain termasuklah kepercayaan dalam penjelmaan semula dan karma , serta dalam tugas peribadi, atau dharma .

McDaniel - enam generik "jenis"

McDaniel (2007) membezakan enam generik "jenis" agama Hindu, dalam usaha untuk menampung pelbagai pandangan mengenai subjek yang agak rumit: [58]

  • Rakyat Hindu , kerana berdasarkan tradisi tempatan dan pemujaan tempatan dewa di peringkat masyarakat dan menjangkau kembali ke zaman prasejarah atau sekurang-kurangnya sebelum ditulis Veda .
  • Shrauta atau "Vedik" Hindu seperti yang diamalkan oleh tradisionalis Brahmin ( Shrautins ).
  • Vedantic Hindu, sebagai contoh Advaita Vedanta ( Smartism ), seperti yang berdasarkan pendekatan falsafah daripada Upanishad .
  • Yogic Hindu, terutamanya yang berdasarkan Sutra Yoga Patanjali daripada .
  • "Dharmic" Hindu atau "moral harian", berdasarkan Karma , dan apabila norma-norma masyarakat seperti Vivāha (Hindu perkahwinan adat).
  • Bhakti atau amalan devotionalist

Michaels - agama Hindu dan Hindu keagamaan

Michaels membezakan tiga agama-agama Hindu dan empat bentuk keagamaan Hindu. [59]

Bahagian ke tiga agama Hindu sepadan dengan pembahagian India amalan ritual ke Vedik (vaidika), kampung dan agama rakyat (gramya), dan mazhab ( Agama atau tantra ). [60] Ketiga-tiga agama Hindu adalah:

  1. Brahman-Sanskrit Hindu: a politeisme, ritual, agama imam yang memberi tumpuan kepada keluarga besar ritual domestik dan upacara korban, dan merayu kepada corpus teks Vedik sebagai pihak berkuasa. [59] Ia mengambil tempat yang utama dalam kebanyakan buku mengenai agama Hindu, kerana ia memenuhi kriteria yang banyak untuk takrif agama, dan kerana "di kebanyakan rantau di India ia adalah agama yang dominan dalam mana kumpulan penduduk bukan Brahman berusaha untuk mengasimilasikan. [59] [nota 6]
  2. Agama kaum dan agama puak: politeisme, kadang-kadang animistik, agama tempatan dengan tradisi lisan yang menyeluruh. Selalunya dalam ketegangan dengan Brahman-Sanskrit Hindu. [61]
  3. Ditubuhkan agama: agama keselamatan dengan masyarakat monastik, biasanya pertapa, sering anti-Brahman. [59] Tiga kumpulan kecil boleh dibezakan:
    1. Agama mazhab: contohnya Vaishnavism dan Shaivism . [61]
    2. Sinkretik mengasaskan agama: Hindu-Islam (Sikh), Hindu-Buddha (Newar-Buddha), Hindu-Kristian agama bercampur seperti Neohinduism . [61]
    3. Ditubuhkan, berdakwah agama, "Guru-ism": kumpulan-kumpulan seperti Maharishi Mahesh Yogi dan transendental Meditasi , Satya Sai Baba dan Sai Persekutuan Satya , Bhaktivedanta Swami Prabhupada dan ISKCON , Maharaj Ji dan Cahaya Ilahi Misi , Osho . [61]

Empat bentuk keagamaan Hindu adalah:

  1. Ritualisme:. Vedik-Brahmanistic ritualisme domestik dan korban, tetapi juga beberapa bentuk Tantrism [60] Ini adalah klasik karma-Marga ., jalan tindakan [62]
  2. Spiritualisme: keagamaan intelek, bertujuan untuk pembebasan individu, sering di bawah bimbingan seorang guru . Ia adalah ciri-ciri Advaita Vedanta , Kashmir Shaivism , Shaiva Siddhanta , Neo-Vedanta , Moden esoterik Guruism, dan beberapa jenis Tantrism. [60] Ini adalah klasik Jnana-Marga . [62]
  3. Devotionalism: ibadat mistik Tuhan, seperti dalam bhakti dan Krishnaism . [60] Ini adalah klasik bhakti-Marga . [62]
  4. Kepahlawanan: a. Bentuk politeistik keagamaan berakar umbi dalam tradisi ketenteraan, seperti Ramaism dan bahagian-bahagian Hindusim politik [60] ini juga dikenali sebagai virya-Marga . [62]

Sejarah

Periodisasi

Apa yang dipanggil Siva Pashupati meterai, tamadun Lembah Indus .
Tentera Laut shoulderboard untuk paderi tentera Hindu, South tentera Afrika

James Mill (1773-1836), di dalam Sejarah British India (1817), [63] dibezakan tiga fasa dalam sejarah India, iaitu Hindu, Muslim dan British. [63] [64] periodisasi ini telah dikritik , bagi salah faham ia telah menimbulkan. [65] periodisasi lain adalah pembahagian ke dalam "kuno, klasik, tempoh medieaval dan moden". [66] Smart [67] dan Michaels [68] nampaknya mengikuti periodisasi Kilang ini, [nota 7] , manakala Flood [69] dan Muesse [71] [72] mengikuti "kuno, klasik, dan moden medieaval tempoh" periodisasi. [73]

Tempoh yang berbeza yang ditetapkan sebagai "klasik Hindu":

  • Smart panggilan tempoh antara 1000 SM dan 100 CE "pra-klasik". Ia adalah tempoh formatif untuk Upanishad dan Brahmanisme [nota 8] , Jainisme dan Buddhisme. Untuk Smart, "tempoh klasik" berlangsung 100-1000 CE, dan bertepatan dengan bunga "klasik Hindu" dan berbunga dan kemerosotan Mahayana-Buddha di India. [75]
  • Untuk Michaels, tempoh antara 500 SM dan 200 SM adalah masa "reformisme pertapaan" [76] , manakala tempoh antara 200 SM dan 1100 CE adalah masa "klasik Hindu", kerana ada "titik perubahan antara Vedik agama Hindu dan agama ". [77]
  • Muesse discerns tempoh yang lebih perubahan, iaitu antara 800 SM dan 200 SM, yang dia memanggil "Tempoh klasik":
... Ini adalah masa yang apabila amalan tradisi agama dan kepercayaan yang telah dinilai semula. Brahmin dan upacara mereka dilakukan tidak lagi menikmati prestij yang sama mereka telah di pariod Vedik ". [78]

According to Muesse, some of the fundamental concepts of Hinduism, namely karma, reincarnation and "personal enlightenment and transformation", which did not exist in the Vedic religion, developed in this time:

Indian philosophers came to regard the human as an immortal soul encased in a perishable body and bound by action, or karma, to a cycle of endless existences. [ 79 ]

According to Muesse, reincarnation is "a fundamental principle of virtually all religions formed in Indias". [ 80 ]

The period of the ascetic reforms saw the rise of Buddhism and Jainism, while Sikhism originated during the time of Islamic rule. [ 81 ]

Smart [ 67 ] Michaels
(overall)
[ 81 ]
Michaels
(detailed)
[ 81 ]
Muesse [ 72 ] Flood [ 82 ]
Indus Valley Civilisation and Vedic period
(ca. 3000-1000 BCE)
Prevedic religions
(until ca. 1750 BCE) [ 68 ]
Prevedic religions
(until ca. 1750 BCE) [ 68 ]
Indus Valley Civilization
(3300–1400 BCE)
Indus Valley Civilisation
(ca. 2500 to 1500 BCE)
Vedic religion
(ca. 1750-500 BCE)
Early Vedic Period
(ca. 1750-1200 BCE)
Vedic Period
(1600–800 BCE)
Vedic period
(ca. 1500-500 BCE)
Middle Vedic Period
(from 1200 BCE)
Pre-classical period
(ca. 1000 BCE - 100 CE)
Late Vedic period
(from 850 BCE)
Classical Period
(800–200 BCE)
Ascetic reformism
(ca. 500-200 BCE)
Ascetic reformism
(ca. 500-200 BCE)
Epic and Puranic period
(ca. 500 BCE to 500 CE)
Classical Hinduism
(ca. 200 BCE-1100 CE) [ 77 ]
Preclassical Hinduism
(ca. 200 BCE-300 CE) [ 83 ]
Epic and Puranic period
(200 BCE–500 CE)
Classical period
(ca. 100 CE - 1000 CE)
"Golden Age" ( Gupta Empire )
(ca. 320-650 CE) [ 84 ]
Late-Classical Hinduism
(ca. 650-1100 CE) [ 85 ]
Medieval and Late Puranic Period
(500–1500 CE)
Medieval and Late Puranic Period
(500–1500 CE)
Hindu-Islamic civilisation
(ca. 1000-1750 CE)
Islamic rule and "Sects of Hinduism"
(ca. 1100-1850 CE) [ 86 ]
Islamic rule and "Sects of Hinduism"
(ca. 1100-1850 CE) [ 86 ]
Modern Age
(1500–present)
Modern period
(ca. 1500 CE to present)
Modern period
(ca. 1750 CE - present)
Modern Hinduism
(from ca. 1850) [ 87 ]
Modern Hinduism
(from ca. 1850) [ 87 ]

Prevedic religions (until c. 1750 BCE)

The earliest evidence for prehistoric religion in India date back to the late Neolithic in the early Harappan period (5500–2600 BCE). [ 88 ] [ 89 ] The beliefs and practices of the pre-classical era (1500–500 BCE) are called the " historical Vedic religion ".

Vedic religion (c. 1750-500 BCE)

The Vedic religion is an off-shoot from the Proto-Indo-European religion. [ 90 ] [ 91 ] [ 92 ] [ 93 ] The oldest Veda is the Rigveda , dated to 1700–1100 BCE. [ 94 ] The Vedas centre on the worship of deities such as Indra , Varuna and Agni , and on the Soma ritual. Fire-sacrifices, called yajña are performed by chanting Vedic mantras but no temples or idols are known. [ 95 ] [ 96 ]

Ethics in the Vedas are based on the concepts of Satya and Rta . Satya is the principle of integration rooted in the Absolute. [ 97 ] Ṛta is the expression of Satya, which regulates and coordinates the operation of the universe and everything within it. [ 98 ] }}

The term "dharma" was already used in Brahmanical thought, where it was conceived as an aspect of Rta . [ 99 ] The term rta is also known from the Proto-Indo-Iranian religion , the religion of the Indo-Iranian peoples prior to the earliest Vedic (Indo-Aryan) and Zoroastrian (Iranian) scriptures. Asha [ pronunciation? ] ( aša ) is the Avestan language term corresponding to Vedic language ṛta . [ 100 ]

The 9th and 8th centuries BCE witnessed the composition of the earliest Upanishads. [ 101 ] :183 Upanishads form the theoretical basis of classical Hinduism and are known as Vedanta (conclusion of the Veda ). [ 102 ] The older Upanishads launched attacks of increasing intensity on the rituals. [ 103 ] The diverse monistic speculations of the Upanishads were synthesized into a theistic framework by the sacred Hindu scripture Bhagavad Gita . [ 104 ]

Ascetic reformism (c. 500-200 BCE)

Increasing urbanisation of India in 7th and 6th centuries BCE led to the rise of new ascetic or shramana movements which challenged the orthodoxy of rituals. [ 105 ] Mahavira (c. 549–477 BCE), proponent of Jainism , and Buddha (c. 563-483), founder of Buddhism were the most prominent icons of this movement. [ 101 ] :184 Shramana gave rise to the concept of the cycle of birth and death, the concept of samsara , and the concept of liberation. [ 106 ] Radhakrishnan , Oldenberg and Neumann believed that the Buddhist canon had been influenced by Upanishads. [ 107 ]

Classical Hinduism (c. 200 BCE-100 CE)

Sacred Mount Kailash in Tibet is regarded as the spiritual abode of Lord Shiva .

Pre-classical Hinduism (c. 200 BCE-300 CE)

The major Sanskrit epics, Ramayana and Mahabharata , were compiled over a protracted period during the late centuries BCE and the early centuries CE. [ 108 ] They contain mythological stories about the rulers and wars of ancient India, and are interspersed with religious and philosophical treatises. The later Puranas recount tales about devas and devis , their interactions with humans and their battles against rakshasa .

In early centuries CE several schools of Hindu philosophy were formally codified, including Samkhya , Yoga , Nyaya , Vaisheshika , Purva-Mimamsa and Vedanta . [ 109 ]

"Golden Age" (Gupta Empire) (c. 320-650 CE)

The period between 5th and 9th century CE was a brilliant era in the development of Indian philosophy as Hindu and Buddhist philosophies flourished side by side. [ 110 ] Of these various schools of thought the non-dualistic Advaita Vedanta emerged as the most influential and most dominant school of philosophy. [ 111 ] [ 112 ] Charvaka , the atheistic materialist school, came to the fore in North India before the 8th century CE. [ 113 ]

Late-Classical Hinduism (c. 650-110 CE)

Sanskritic culture went into decline after the end of the Gupta period . The early medieval Puranas helped establish a religious mainstream among the pre-literate tribal societies undergoing acculturation . The tenets of Brahmanic Hinduism and of the Dharmashastras underwent a radical transformation at the hands of the Purana composers, resulting in the rise of a mainstream "Hinduism" that overshadowed all earlier traditions. [ 114 ] In 8th-century royal circles, the Buddha started to be replaced by Hindu gods in pujas. [ 115 ] This also was the same period of time the Buddha was made into an avatar of Vishnu. [ 116 ]

Islamic rule and Sects of Hinduism (c. 1100-1850 CE)

Though Islam came to India in the early 7th century with the advent of Arab traders and the conquest of Sindh, it started to become a major religion during the later Muslim conquest in the Indian subcontinent . [ 117 ] During this period Buddhism declined rapidly and many Hindus were forcibly converted to Islam . [ 118 ] [ 119 ] [ 120 ] Numerous Muslim rulers or their army generals such as Aurangzeb and Malik Kafur destroyed Hindu temples [ 121 ] [ 122 ] [ 123 ] and persecuted non-Muslims ; however some, such as Akbar , were more tolerant. The 17th-century Hindu Maratha Empire is credited for ending the Islamic Mughal rule in India. [ 124 ] and furthermore the Marathas are considered as champions of Hinduism. [ 125 ] Hinduism underwent profound changes, in large part due to the influence of the prominent teachers Ramanuja , Madhva , and Chaitanya . [ 117 ] Followers of the Bhakti movement moved away from the abstract concept of Brahman , which the philosopher Adi Shankara consolidated a few centuries before, with emotional, passionate devotion towards the more accessible Avatars , especially Krishna and Rama. [ 126 ]

Modern Hinduism (from c. 1850)

Indology as an academic discipline of studying Indian culture from a European perspective was established in the 19th century, led by scholars such as Max Müller and John Woodroffe . They brought Vedic , Puranic and Tantric literature and philosophy to Europe and the United States. At the same time, societies such as the Brahmo Samaj and the Theosophical Society attempted to reconcile and fuse Abrahamic and Dharmic philosophies, endeavouring to institute societal reform. This period saw the emergence of movements which, while highly innovative, were rooted in indigenous tradition. They were based on the personalities and teachings of individuals, as with Ramakrishna and Ramana Maharshi . Prominent Hindu philosophers, including Aurobindo and Prabhupada (founder of ISKCON ), translated, reformulated and presented Hinduism's foundational texts for contemporary audiences in new iterations, attracting followers and attention in India and abroad. Others such as Vivekananda , Paramahansa Yogananda , Sri Chinmoy , BKS Iyengar and Swami Rama have also been instrumental in raising the profiles of Yoga and Vedanta in the West.

Beliefs

Temple carving at Hoysaleswara temple representing the Trimurti : Brahma , Shiva and Vishnu .

Hinduism refers to a religious mainstream which evolved organically and spread over a large territory marked by significant ethnic and cultural diversity. This mainstream evolved both by innovation from within, and by assimilation of external traditions or cults into the Hindu fold. The result is an enormous variety of religious traditions, ranging from innumerable small, unsophisticated cults to major religious movements with millions of adherents spread over the entire subcontinent. The identification of Hinduism as an independent religion separate from Buddhism or Jainism consequently hinges on the affirmation of its adherents that it is such. [ 127 ]

Hinduism grants absolute and complete freedom of belief and worship . [ 128 ] [ 129 ] [ 130 ] Hinduism conceives the whole world as a single family that deifies the one truth, and therefore it accepts all forms of beliefs and dismisses labels of distinct religions which would imply a division of identity. [ 131 ] Hence, Hinduism is devoid of the concepts of apostasy , heresy and blasphemy . [ 132 ] [ 133 ] [ 134 ] [ 135 ]

Prominent themes in Hindu beliefs include (but are not restricted to), Dharma (ethics/duties), Samsāra (the continuing cycle of birth, life, death and rebirth), Karma (action and subsequent reaction), Moksha (liberation from samsara ), and the various Yogas (paths or practices). [ 136 ]

Concept of God

Krishna displays his Vishvarupa (Universal Form) to Arjuna on the battlefield of Kurukshetra.

Hinduism is a diverse system of thought with beliefs spanning monotheism , polytheism , panentheism , pantheism , monism , and atheism among others; [ 137 ] [ 138 ] [ 139 ] [ 140 ] and its concept of God is complex and depends upon each individual and the tradition and philosophy followed. It is sometimes referred to as henotheistic (ie, involving devotion to a single god while accepting the existence of others), but any such term is an overgeneralization. [ 141 ]

The Rig Veda , the oldest scripture and the mainstay of Hindu philosophy does not take a restrictive view on the fundamental question of God and the creation of universe. It rather lets the individual seek and discover answers in the quest of life. Nasadiya Sukta ( Creation Hymn ) of the Rig Veda thus says: [ 142 ] [ 143 ]

Who really knows?
Who will here proclaim it?
Whence was it produced? Whence is this creation?
The gods came afterwards, with the creation of this universe.
Who then knows whence it has arisen?

Most Hindus believe that the spirit or soul — the true "self" of every person, called the ātman — is eternal. [ 144 ] According to the monistic/pantheistic theologies of Hinduism (such as Advaita Vedanta school), this Atman is ultimately indistinct from Brahman , the supreme spirit. Hence, these schools are called non-dualist . [ 145 ] The goal of life, according to the Advaita school, is to realize that one's ātman is identical to Brahman, the supreme soul. [ 146 ] The Upanishads state that whoever becomes fully aware of the ātman as the innermost core of one's own self realizes an identity with Brahman and thereby reaches moksha (liberation or freedom). [ 144 ] [ 147 ]

The schools of Vedanta and Nyaya states that karma itself proves the existence of God. [ 148 ] [ 149 ] Nyaya being the school of logic , makes the "logical" inference that the universe is an effect and it ought to have a creator. [ 150 ]

Dualistic schools (see Dvaita and Bhakti ) understand Brahman as a Supreme Being who possesses personality, and they worship him or her thus, as Vishnu , Brahma , Shiva , or Shakti , depending upon the sect. The ātman is dependent on God, while moksha depends on love towards God and on God's grace. [ 151 ] When God is viewed as the supreme personal being (rather than as the infinite principle), God is called Ishvara ("The Lord"), [ 152 ] Bhagavan ("The Auspicious One" [ 152 ] ) or Parameshwara ("The Supreme Lord" [ 152 ] ). [ 145 ] However interpretations of Ishvara vary, ranging from non-belief in Ishvara by followers of Mimamsakas , to identifying Brahman and Ishvara as one, as in Advaita. [ 145 ] In the majority of traditions of Vaishnavism he is Vishnu, God, and the text of Vaishnava scriptures identify this Being as Krishna , sometimes referred to as svayam bhagavan . However, under Shaktism , Devi or Adi parashakti is considered as the Supreme Being and in Shaivism Shiva is considered Supreme.

The multitude of devas are viewed as avatars of the Brahman . [ 153 ] [ 154 ] [ 155 ] [ 156 ] In discussing the Trimurti , Sir William Jones states that Hindus "worship the Supreme Being under three forms — Vishnu , Siva , Brahma ...The fundamental idea of the Hindu religion, that of metamorphoses, or transformations, is exemplified in the Avatars. [ 157 ]

In Bhagavad Gita , for example, God is the sole repository of Gunas (attributes) also as: [ 158 ]

His hands and feet are everywhere, He looks everywhere and all around, His eyes, ears and face point to all directions, and all the three worlds are surrounded by these.

Atheistic doctrines dominate Hindu schools like Samkhya and Mimamsa . [ 159 ] The Samkhyapravachana Sutra of Samkhya argues that the existence of God ( Ishvara ) cannot be proved and hence cannot be admitted to exist. [ 160 ] Samkhya argue that an unchanging God cannot be the source of an ever changing world. It says God was a necessary metaphysical assumption demanded by circumstances. [ 161 ] Proponents of the school of Mimamsa , which is based on rituals and orthopraxy states that the evidence allegedly proving the existence of God was insufficient. They argue that there is no need to postulate a maker for the world, just as there is no need for an author to compose the Vedas or a God to validate the rituals. [ 162 ] Mimamsa considers the Gods named in the Vedas have no existence apart from the mantras that speak their names. To that regard, the power of the mantras is what is seen as the power of Gods. [ 163 ]

Devas and avatars

Detail of the Phra Prang, the central tower of the Wat Arun ("Temple of Dawn") in Bangkok , Thailand - showing Indra on his three-headed elephant Erawan ( Airavata )
Krishna , the eighth incarnation ( avatar ) of Vishnu or Svayam bhagavan , worshiped across a number of traditions

The Hindu scriptures refer to celestial entities called Devas (or devī in feminine form; devatā used synonymously for Deva in Hindi), "the shining ones", which may be translated into English as "gods" or "heavenly beings". [ note 9 ] The devas are an integral part of Hindu culture and are depicted in art , architecture and through icons , and mythological stories about them are related in the scriptures, particularly in Indian epic poetry and the Puranas . They are, however, often distinguished from Ishvara , a supreme personal god, with many Hindus worshiping Ishvara in one of its particular manifestations (ostensibly separate deities) as their iṣṭa devatā , or chosen ideal. [ 164 ] [ 165 ] The choice is a matter of individual preference, [ 166 ] and of regional and family traditions. [ 166 ]

Hindu epics and the Puranas relate several episodes of the descent of God to Earth in corporeal form to restore dharma to society and to guide humans to moksha. Such an incarnation is called an Avatar . The most prominent avatars are of Vishnu and include Rama (the protagonist in Ramayana ) and Krishna (a central figure in the epic Mahabharata ).

Karma and samsara

Karma translates literally as action, work, or deed, [ 167 ] and can be described as the "moral law of cause and effect". [ 168 ] According to the Upanishads an individual, known as the jiva-atma , develops sanskaras (impressions) from actions, whether physical or mental. The linga sharira , a body more subtle than the physical one but less subtle than the soul, retains impressions, carrying them over into the next life, establishing a unique trajectory for the individual. [ 169 ] Thus, the concept of a universal, neutral, and never-failing karma intrinsically relates to reincarnation as well as to one's personality, characteristics, and family. Karma binds together the notions of free will and destiny .

This cycle of action, reaction, birth, death and rebirth is a continuum called samsara . The notion of reincarnation and karma is a strong premise in Hindu thought. The Bhagavad Gita states:

As a person puts on new clothes and discards old and torn clothes,
similarly an embodied soul enters new material bodies, leaving the old bodies. (BG 2:22) [ 170 ]

Samsara provides ephemeral pleasures, which lead people to desire rebirth so as to enjoy the pleasures of a perishable body. However, escaping the world of samsara through moksha is believed to ensure lasting happiness and peace. [ 171 ] [ 172 ] It is thought that after several reincarnations, an atman eventually seeks unity with the cosmic spirit (Brahman/Paramatman).

The ultimate goal of life, referred to as moksha , nirvana or samadhi , is understood in several different ways: as the realization of one's union with God; as the realization of one's eternal relationship with God; realization of the unity of all existence; perfect unselfishness and knowledge of the Self; as the attainment of perfect mental peace; and as detachment from worldly desires. Such realization liberates one from samsara and ends the cycle of rebirth. [ 173 ] [ 174 ] Due to belief in the indestructibility of the soul, [ 175 ] death is deemed insignificant with respect to the cosmic self. [ 176 ] Thence, a person who has no desire or ambition left and no responsibilities remaining in life or one affected by a terminal disease may embrace death by Prayopavesa . [ 177 ]

The exact conceptualization of moksha differs among the various Hindu schools of thought. For example, Advaita Vedanta holds that after attaining moksha an atman no longer identifies itself with an individual but as identical with Brahman in all respects. The followers of Dvaita (dualistic) schools identify themselves as part of Brahman, and after attaining moksha expect to spend eternity in a loka (heaven), [ 178 ] in the company of their chosen form of Ishvara . Thus, it is said that the followers of dvaita wish to "taste sugar", while the followers of Advaita wish to "become sugar". [ 179 ]

Sin and Penance

Penance is more important than repentance. Although repentance is important, it alone will not free a person of sin. Manu Smriti , 11.228-234 declares austerity as one of the measures, along with repentance, that the sinner is freed from guilt. [ 180 ]

Common penances Hindus perform for reducing accumulated sins or karmaphala are dāna (charity), tapas (auasterities), kriya yoga (studying self and God), pranayama (breath control), vrata (fasting), homa (performing or partaking in a fire ceremony) and japa (recitation of sacred scriptures.)

Sin is papa, and penance is tapas. The celibate Brahmacharin the Atharva Veda and Satapatha Brahmana is seen as generating tapas by his ascetic practice. Later in the Upanisands Tapas comes to include an array of ascetic practices: celibacy, fasting, silence, breath control, difficult postured, mortication such as exposure to cold and heat (sitting amidst five fires of the noon sun and four bonfires), vaious forms of meditation. [ 181 ]

Self-control and Self-realization

Hinduism advocates for the salvation or Self-realization of an individual's soul, the individual must control his or her senses, and that salvation is not freely given.

Let a man raise himself by himself, let him not lower himself; he alone is the friend of himself, he alone is the enemy of himself. To him who has conquered himself by himself, his own self is the friend of himself and he alone is the enemy of himself. [ 182 ] "
It is out good exertions that are attended by good results, as the bad ones are followed by bad consequences. Chance is a mere meaningless word. [ 183 ] "

Historically several Hindus have taken up monkhood to achieve Self-realization, although from scriptures such as Bhagavad Gita individuals are told that a lay person can achieve moksha though control of the senses.

Objectives of human life

From the Ramayana

Classical Hindu thought accepts the following objectives of human life, that which is sought as human purpose, aim, or end, is known as the purusarthas : [ 184 ] [ 185 ]

Dharma (righteousness, ethics)

The Brihadaranyaka Upanishad views dharma as the universal principle of law, order, harmony, all in all truth, that sprang first from Brahman . It acts as the regulatory moral principle of the Universe. It is sat (truth), a major tenet of Hinduism. This hearkens back to the conception of the Rigveda that "Ekam Sat," (Truth Is One), of the idea that Brahman is " Sacchidananda " (Truth-Consciousness-Bliss). Dharma is not just law, or harmony, it is pure Reality. In the Brihadaranyaka Upanishad 's own words:

Verily, that which is Dharma is truth, Therefore they say of a man who speaks truth, "He speaks the Dharma,"
or of a man who speaks the Dharma, "He speaks the Truth.", Verily, both these things are the same.
—( Brh. Upanishad , 1.4.14) ( 2 )

In the Mahabharata , Krishna defines dharma as upholding both this-worldly and other-worldly affairs. (Mbh 12.110.11). The word Sanātana means 'eternal', 'perennial', or 'forever'; thus, 'Sanātana Dharma' signifies that it is the dharma that has neither beginning nor end. [ 186 ]

Artha (livelihood, wealth)

Artha is objective & virtuous pursuit of wealth for livelihood, obligations and economic prosperity. It is inclusive of political life, diplomacy and material well-being. The doctrine of Artha is called Arthashastra , amongst the most famous of which is Kautilya Arthashastra. [ 187 ] [ 188 ] [ 189 ]

Kāma (sensual pleasure)

Kāma ( Sanskrit , Pali ; Devanagari : काम) means desire, wish, passion, longing, pleasure of the senses , the aesthetic enjoyment of life, affection, or love. [ 190 ] [ 191 ]

Mokṣa (liberation, freedom from samsara)

Moksha ( Sanskrit : मोक्ष mokṣa ) or mukti ( Sanskrit : मुक्ति ), literally "release" (both from a root muc "to let loose, let go"), is the last goal of life. It is liberation from samsara and the concomitant suffering involved in being subject to the cycle of repeated death and reincarnation . [ 192 ]

Yoga

A statue of Shiva in yogic meditation.

In whatever way a Hindu defines the goal of life, there are several methods (yogas) that sages have taught for reaching that goal. Texts dedicated to Yoga include the Bhagavad Gita , the Yoga Sutras , the Hatha Yoga Pradipika , and, as their philosophical and historical basis, the Upanishads. Paths that one can follow to achieve the spiritual goal of life ( moksha , samadhi or nirvana ) include:

An individual may prefer one or some yogas over others, according to his or her inclination and understanding. Some devotional schools teach that bhakti is the only practical path to achieve spiritual perfection for most people, based on their belief that the world is currently in the Kali Yuga (one of four epochs which are part of the Yuga cycle). [ 194 ] Practice of one yoga does not exclude others. Many schools believe that the different yogas naturally blend into and aid other yogas. For example, the practice of jnana yoga , is thought to inevitably lead to pure love (the goal of bhakti yoga ), and vice versa. [ 195 ] Someone practicing deep meditation (such as in raja yoga ) must embody the core principles of karma yoga , jnana yoga and bhakti yoga , whether directly or indirectly. [ 193 ] [ 196 ]

Practices

The sacred Tulsi plant in front of the house.

Hindu practices generally involve seeking awareness of God and sometimes also seeking blessings from Devas. Therefore, Hinduism has developed numerous practices meant to help one think of divinity in the midst of everyday life. Hindus can engage in puja (worship or veneration), [ 152 ] either at home or at a temple. At home, Hindus often create a shrine with icons dedicated to their chosen form(s) of God. Temples are usually dedicated to a primary deity along with associated subordinate deities though some commemorate multiple deities. Visiting temples is not obligatory, [ 197 ] and many visit temples only during religious festivals. Hindus perform their worship through icons ( murtis ). The icon serves as a tangible link between the worshiper and God. [ 198 ] The image is often considered a manifestation of God, since God is immanent. The Padma Purana states that the mūrti is not to be thought of as mere stone or wood but as a manifest form of the Divinity. [ 199 ] A few Hindu sects, such as the Ārya Samāj , do not believe in worshiping God through icons.

Hinduism has a developed system of symbolism and iconography to represent the sacred in art, architecture, literature and worship. These symbols gain their meaning from the scriptures, mythology, or cultural traditions. The syllable Om (which represents the Parabrahman ) and the Swastika sign (which symbolises auspiciousness) have grown to represent Hinduism itself, while other markings such as tilaka identify a follower of the faith. Hinduism associates many symbols, which include the lotus, chakra and veena , with particular deities.

Mantras are invocations, praise and prayers that through their meaning, sound, and chanting style help a devotee focus the mind on holy thoughts or express devotion to God/the deities. Many devotees perform morning ablutions at the bank of a sacred river while chanting the Gayatri Mantra or Mahamrityunjaya mantras. [ 200 ] The epic Mahabharata extols Japa (ritualistic chanting) as the greatest duty in the Kali Yuga (what Hindus believe to be the current age). [ 201 ] Many adopt Japa as their primary spiritual practice. [ 201 ] Yoga is a Hindu discipline which trains the consciousness for tranquility, health and spiritual insight. This is done through a system of postures and exercises to practise control of the body and mind. [ 202 ]

Rituals

Offerings to Agni during Vivah-homa in a Hindu wedding

The vast majority of Hindus engage in religious rituals on a daily basis. [ 203 ] [ 204 ] Most Hindus observe religious rituals at home. [ 205 ] but this varies greatly among regions, villages, and individuals. Devout Hindus perform daily rituals such as worshiping at dawn after bathing (usually at a family shrine, and typically includes lighting a lamp and offering foodstuffs before the images of deities), recitation from religious scripts, singing devotional hymns , meditation , chanting mantras, reciting scriptures etc. [ 205 ] A notable feature in religious ritual is the division between purity and pollution. Religious acts presuppose some degree of impurity or defilement for the practitioner, which must be overcome or neutralised before or during ritual procedures. Purification, usually with water, is thus a typical feature of most religious action. [ 205 ] Other characteristics include a belief in the efficacy of sacrifice and concept of merit, gained through the performance of charity or good works, that will accumulate over time and reduce sufferings in the next world. [ 205 ] Vedic rites of fire-oblation ( yajna ) are now only occasional practices, although they are highly revered in theory. In Hindu wedding and burial ceremonies, however, the yajña and chanting of Vedic mantras are still the norm. [ 206 ] The rituals, upacharas , change with time. For instance, in the past few hundred years some rituals, such as sacred dance and music offerings in the standard Sodasa Upacharas set prescribed by the Agama Shastra, were replaced by the offerings of rice and sweets.

Occasions like birth, marriage, and death involve what are often elaborate sets of religious customs. In Hinduism, life-cycle rituals include Annaprashan (a baby's first intake of solid food), Upanayanam ("sacred thread ceremony" undergone by upper-caste children at their initiation into formal education) and Śrāddha (ritual of treating people to a meal in return for prayers to 'God' to give peace to the soul of the deceased). [ 207 ] [ 208 ] For most people in India, the betrothal of the young couple and the exact date and time of the wedding are matters decided by the parents in consultation with astrologers. [ 207 ] On death, cremation is considered obligatory for all except sanyasis , hijra , and children under five. [ 209 ] Cremation is typically performed by wrapping the corpse in cloth and burning it on a pyre .

Pilgrimage

Pilgrimage to Kedarnath

Following pilgrimage sites are most famous amongst Hindu devotees:

Char Dham (Famous Four Pilgrimage sites): The four holy sites Puri , Rameswaram , Dwarka , and Badrinath (or alternatively the Himalayan towns of Badrinath , Kedarnath , Gangotri , and Yamunotri ) compose the Char Dham ( four abodes ) pilgrimage circuit.

Kumbh Mela: The Kumbh Mela (the "pitcher festival") is one of the holiest of Hindu pilgrimages that is held every 12 years; the location is rotated among Allahabad , Haridwar , Nashik , and Ujjain .

Old Holy cities as per Puranic Texts: Varanasi formerly known as Kashi, Allahabad formerly known as Prayag, Haridwar - Rishikesh , Mathura - Vrindavan , and Ayodhya .

Major Temple cities: Puri , which hosts a major Vaishnava Jagannath temple and Rath Yatra celebration; Katra , home to the Vaishno Devi temple; Three comparatively recent temples of fame and huge pilgrimage are Shirdi , home to Sai Baba of Shirdi , Tirumala - Tirupati , home to the Tirumala Venkateswara Temple ; and Sabarimala ,where Swami Ayyappan is worshipped.

Shakti Peethas: Another important set of pilgrimages are the Shakti Peethas , where the Mother Goddess is worshipped, the two principal ones being Kalighat and Kamakhya .

While there are different yet similar pilgrimage routes in different parts of India, all are respected equally well, according to the universality of Hinduism.

Pilgrimage is not mandatory in Hinduism, though many adherents undertake them. [ 210 ]

Festivals

The festival of lights- Diwali , is celebrated by Hindus all over the world.

Hindu festivals ( Sanskrit : Utsava ; literally: "to lift higher") are considered as symbolic rituals that beautifully weave individual and social life to dharma . [ 211 ] Hinduism has many festivals throughout the year. The Hindu calendar usually prescribe their dates.

The festivals typically celebrate events from Hindu mythology, often coinciding with seasonal changes. There are festivals which are primarily celebrated by specific sects or in certain regions of the Indian subcontinent .

Some widely observed Hindu festivals include:

Scriptures

Hinduism is based on "the accumulated treasury of spiritual laws discovered by different persons in different times". [ 212 ] [ 213 ] The scriptures were transmitted orally in verse form to aid memorisation, for many centuries before they were written down. [ 214 ] Over many centuries, sages refined the teachings and expanded the canon. In post-Vedic and current Hindu belief, most Hindu scriptures are not typically interpreted literally. More importance is attached to the ethics and metaphorical meanings derived from them. [ 88 ] Most sacred texts are in Sanskrit . The texts are classified into two classes: Shruti and Smriti .

Shruti

The Rigveda is one of the oldest religious texts . This Rigveda manuscript is in Devanagari

Shruti (lit: that which is heard) [ 215 ] primarily refers to the Vedas , which form the earliest record of the Hindu scriptures. While many Hindus revere the Vedas as eternal truths revealed to ancient sages ( Ṛṣi s ), [ 213 ] some devotees do not associate the creation of the Vedas with a god or person. They are thought of as the laws of the spiritual world, which would still exist even if they were not revealed to the sages. [ 212 ] [ 216 ] [ 217 ] Hindus believe that because the spiritual truths of the Vedas are eternal, they continue to be expressed in new ways. [ 218 ]

There are four Vedas (called Ṛg -, Sāma-, Yajus- and Atharva- ). The Rigveda is the first and most important Veda. [ 219 ] Each Veda is divided into four parts: the primary one, the Veda proper , being the Saṃhitā , which contains sacred mantras . The other three parts form a three-tier ensemble of commentaries, usually in prose and are believed to be slightly later in age than the Saṃhitā . These are: the Brāhmaṇas , Āraṇyakas , and the Upanishads . The first two parts were subsequently called the Karmakāṇḍa (ritualistic portion), while the last two form the Jñānakāṇḍa (knowledge portion). [ 220 ] While the Vedas focus on rituals, the Upanishads focus on spiritual insight and philosophical teachings, and discuss Brahman and reincarnation . [ 88 ] [ 221 ] [ 222 ]

A well known shloka from Brihadaranyaka Upanishad is:

ॐ असतो मा सद्गमय । तमसो मा ज्योतिर्गमय ।।
मृत्योर्मामृतं गमय । ॐ शान्ति शान्ति शान्ति ।।
– बृहदारण्यक उपनिषद् 1.3.28.

IAST :

om asato mā sadgamaya | tamaso mā jyotirgamaya ||
mṛtyor mā amṛtaṁ gamaya | om śānti śānti śānti ||
– bṛhadāraṇyaka upaniṣada 1.3.28

Translation :

Lead Us From the Unreal To the Real |
Lead Us From Darkness To Light ||
Lead Us From Death To Immortality |
Om Let There Be Peace Peace Peace.||
– Brihadaranyaka Upanishad 1.3.28.

Smritis

Bhagavad Gita, a 19th-century manuscript

Hindu texts other than the Shrutis are collectively called the Smritis (memory). The most notable of the smritis are the epics , which consist of the Mahābhārata and the Rāmāyaṇa . The Bhagavad Gītā is an integral part of the Mahabharata and one of the most popular sacred texts of Hinduism. It contains philosophical teachings from Krishna , an incarnation of Vishnu , told to the prince Arjuna on the eve of a great war. The Bhagavad Gītā , spoken by Krishna , is described as the essence of the Vedas. [ 223 ] However Gita, sometimes called Gitopanishad , is more often placed in the Shruti , category, being Upanishadic in content. [ 224 ] Purāṇa s , which illustrate Hindu ideas through vivid narratives come under smritis. Other texts include Devī Mahātmya , the Tantras , the Yoga Sutras , Tirumantiram , Shiva Sutras and the Hindu Āgamas . A more controversial text, the Manusmriti , is a prescriptive lawbook which lays the societal codes of social stratification which later evolved into the Indian caste system . [ 225 ]

A well known verse from Bhagavad Gita describing a concept in Karma Yoga is explained as follows [ 226 ] [ 227 ]

To action alone hast thou a right and never at all to its fruits;

let not the fruits of action be thy motive;

neither let there be in thee any attachment to inaction. (2.47)

Order of precedence of authority

The order of precedence regarding authority of Vedic Scriptures is as follows,

  • Śruti , literally "hearing, listening", are the sacred texts comprising the central canon of Hinduism and is one of the three main sources of dharma and therefore is also influential within Hindu Law . [ 228 ]
  • Smṛti , literally "that which is remembered (or recollected)", refers to a specific body of Hindu religious scripture , and is a codified component of Hindu customary law . Post Vedic scriptures such as Ramayana , Mahabharata and traditions of the rules on dharma such as Manu Smriti and Yaagnyavalkya Smriti. Smrti also denotes tradition in the sense that it portrays the traditions of the rules on dharma, especially those of lawful virtuous persons.
  • Purāṇa , literally "of ancient times", are post-vedic scriptures notably consisting of narratives of the history of the universe from creation to destruction, genealogies of kings, heroes, sages, and demigods, and descriptions of Hindu cosmology, philosophy, and geography. [ 229 ]
  • Śiṣṭāchāra , literally "that which is followed by good (in recent times)".
  • Atmatuṣṭi , literally "that which satisfies oneself (or self validation)", according to which one has to decide whether or not to do with bona fide . Initially this was not considered in the order of precedence but Manu and Yājñavalkya considered it as last one.

That means, if anyone of them contradicts the preceding one then it disqualified as an authority. There is a well known Indian saying that Smṛti follows Śruti . So it was considered that in order to establish any theistic philosophical theory (Astika Siddhanta) one ought not contradict Śruti (Vedas).

Adi Sankara has chosen three standards and named as Prasthānatrayī , literally, three points of departure (three standards) . Later these were referred to as the three canonical texts of reference of Hindu philosophy by other Vedanta schools.

Mereka ialah:

  1. The Upanishads , known as Upadesha prasthāna (injunctive texts), (part of Śruti )
  2. The Bhagavad Gita , known as Sādhana prasthāna (practical text), (part of Smṛti )
  3. The Brahma Sutras , known as Nyāya prasthāna or Yukti prasthana (part of darśana of Uttarā Mīmāṃsā )

The Upanishads consist of twelve or thirteen major texts, with many minor texts. The Bhagavad Gītā is part of the Mahabhārata .The Brahma Sūtras (also known as the Vedānta Sūtras ), systematise the doctrines taught in the Upanishads and the Gītā .

Demografi

Hinduism - Percentage by country

Part of a series on
Hinduism by country

Winkel-tripel-projection.jpg

Hinduism is a major religion in India and, according to a 2001 census, Hinduism was followed by around 80.5% of the country's population of 1.21 billion (2012 estimate) (960 million adherents). [ 230 ] Other significant populations are found in Nepal (23 million), Bangladesh (15 million) and the Indonesian island of Bali (3.3 million).

Countries with the greatest proportion of Hindus from Hinduism by country (as of 2008 ):

  1. Nepal 81.3% [ 231 ]
  2. India 80.5%
  3. Mauritius 54% [ 232 ]
  4. Guyana 28% [ 233 ]
  5. Fiji 27.9% [ 234 ]
  6. Bhutan 25% [ 235 ]
  7. Trinidad and Tobago 22.5%
  8. Suriname 20% [ 236 ]
  9. Sri Lanka 12.6% [ 237 ]
  10. Bangladesh 9.6% [ 238 ]
  11. Qatar 7.2%
  12. Réunion 6.7%
  13. Malaysia 6.3% [ 239 ]
  14. Bahrain 6.25%
  15. Kuwait 6%
  16. Singapore 5.1% [ 240 ]
  17. United Arab Emirates 5%
  18. Oman 3%
  19. Belize 2.3%
  20. Seychelles 2.1% [ 241 ]

Demographically, Hinduism is the world's third largest religion , after Christianity and Islam .

Society

Denominations

Padmanabhaswamy Temple , the richest temple in the world [ 242 ]

Hinduism has no central doctrinal authority and many practising Hindus do not claim to belong to any particular denomination. [ 243 ] However, academics categorize contemporary Hinduism into four major denominations: Vaishnavism , Shaivism , Shaktism and Smartism . The denominations differ primarily in the god worshipped as the Supreme One and in the traditions that accompany worship of that god.

Vaishnavas worship Vishnu as the supreme God; Shaivites worship Shiva as the supreme; Shaktas worship Shakti (power) personified through a female divinity or Mother Goddess , Devi ; while Smartas believe in the essential oneness of five ( panchadeva ) or six ( Shanmata , as Tamil Hindus add Skanda ) [ 244 ] deities as personifications of the Supreme.

The Western conception of what Hinduism is has been defined by the Smarta view; many Hindus, who may not understand or follow Advaita philosophy, in contemporary Hinduism, invariably follow the Shanmata belief worshiping many forms of God. One commentator, noting the influence of the Smarta tradition, remarked that although many Hindus may not strictly identify themselves as Smartas but, by adhering to Advaita Vedanta as a foundation for non-sectarianism, are indirect followers. [ 245 ]

Other denominations like Ganapatya (the cult of Ganesha ) and Saura ( Sun worship) are not so widespread.

There are movements that are not easily placed in any of the above categories, such as Swami Dayananda Saraswati 's Arya Samaj , which rejects image worship and veneration of multiple deities. It focuses on the Vedas and the Vedic fire sacrifices ( yajña ).

The Tantric traditions have various sects, as Banerji observes:

Tantras are ... also divided as āstika or Vedic and nāstika or non-Vedic. In accordance with the predominance of the deity the āstika works are again divided as Śākta (Shakta), Śaiva (Shaiva), Saura, Gāṇapatya and Vaiṣṇava (Vaishnava). [ 246 ]

Varnas

Hindu society has been categorized into four classes, called varnas .They are,

  • the Brahmins : Vedic teachers and priests;
  • the Kshatriyas : warriors, nobles, and kings;
  • the Vaishyas : farmers, merchants, and businessmen; and
  • the Shudras : servants and labourers.
Goddess Adi Shakthi at the Parashakthi Temple in Pontiac , USA

The Bhagavad Gītā links the varna to an individual's duty ( svadharma ), inborn nature ( svabhāva ), and natural tendencies ( guṇa ). [ 247 ] Gita's conception of varna allowed Aurobindo to derive his doctrine that "functions of a man ought to be determined by his natural turn, gift and capacities." [ 248 ] [ 249 ] The Manusmṛiti categorizes the different castes. [ 250 ]

Some mobility and flexibility within the varnas challenge allegations of social discrimination in the caste system, as has been pointed out by several sociologists, [ 251 ] [ 252 ] although some other scholars disagree. [ 253 ] Hindus and scholars debate whether the so-called caste system is an integral part of Hinduism sanctioned by the scriptures or an outdated social custom. [ 254 ] [ 255 ] [ 256 ] The religious teacher Sri Ramakrishna (1836–1886) taught that

Lovers of God do not belong to any caste . . . . A brahmin without this love is no longer a brahmin. And a pariah with the love of God is no longer a pariah. Through bhakti (devotion to God) an untouchable becomes pure and elevated. [ 257 ]

A renunciant man of knowledge is usually called Varnatita or "beyond all varnas" in Vedantic works. The bhiksu is advised to not bother about the caste of the family from which he begs his food. Scholars like Adi Sankara affirm that not only is Brahman beyond all varnas, the man who is identified with Him also transcends the distinctions and limitations of caste. [ 258 ]

Ashramas

A Balmiki Ashram

Traditionally the life of a Hindu is divided into four Āshrama s (phases or stages; unrelated meanings include monastery). The first part of one's life, Brahmacharya , the stage as a student, is spent in celibate, controlled, sober and pure contemplation under the guidance of a Guru , building up the mind for spiritual knowledge. Grihastha is the householder's stage, in which one marries and satisfies kāma and artha in one's married and professional life respectively (see the goals of life ). The moral obligations of a Hindu householder include supporting one's parents, children, guests and holy figures. Vānaprastha , the retirement stage, is gradual detachment from the material world. This may involve giving over duties to one's children, spending more time in religious practices and embarking on holy pilgrimages. Finally, in Sannyāsa , the stage of asceticism , one renounces all worldly attachments to secludedly find the Divine through detachment from worldly life and peacefully shed the body for Moksha . [ 259 ]

Monasticism

A sadhu in Madurai , India.

Some Hindus choose to live a monastic life (Sannyāsa) in pursuit of liberation or another form of spiritual perfection. Monastics commit themselves to a life of simplicity, celibacy , detachment from worldly pursuits, and the contemplation of God. [ 260 ] A Hindu monk is called a sanyāsī, sādhu , or swāmi . A female renunciate is called a sanyāsini . Renunciates receive high respect in Hindu society because their outward renunciation of selfishness and worldliness serves as an inspiration to householders who strive for mental renunciation. Some monastics live in monasteries, while others wander from place to place, trusting in God alone to provide for their needs. [ 261 ] It is considered a highly meritorious act for a householder to provide sādhus with food or other necessaries. Sādhus strive to treat all with respect and compassion, whether a person may be poor or rich, good or wicked, and to be indifferent to praise, blame, pleasure, and pain. [ 260 ]

Ahimsa, vegetarianism and other food customs

Hindus advocate the practice of ahiṃsā (non-violence) and respect for all life because divinity is believed to permeate all beings, including plants and non-human animals. [ 262 ] The term ahiṃsā appears in the Upanishads , [ 263 ] the epic Mahabharata [ 264 ] and Ahiṃsā is the first of the five Yamas (vows of self-restraint) in Patanjali's Yoga Sutras . [ 265 ] and the first principle for all member of Varnashrama Dharma (brahmin, kshatriya, vaishya and shudra) in Law of Manu (book 10, sutra 63 : Ahimsa, satya, asteya, shaucam and indrayanigraha , almost similar to main principles of jainism ). [ 266 ] [ 267 ]

A goshala or cow shelter at Guntur

In accordance with ahiṃsā , many Hindus embrace vegetarianism to respect higher forms of life. Estimates of the number of lacto vegetarians in India (includes adherents of all religions) vary between 20% and 42%. [ 268 ] The food habits vary with the community and region: for example, some castes having fewer vegetarians and coastal populations relying on seafood. [ 269 ] [ 270 ] Some avoid meat only on specific holy days. Observant Hindus who do eat meat almost always abstain from beef . The cow in Hindu society is traditionally identified as a caretaker and a maternal figure, [ 271 ] and Hindu society honours the cow as a symbol of unselfish giving. [ 272 ] Cow-slaughter is legally banned in almost all states of India. [ 273 ]

There are many Hindu groups that have continued to abide by a strict vegetarian diet in modern times. One example is the movement known as ISKCON (International Society for Krishna Consciousness), whose followers “not only abstain from meat, fish, and fowl, but also avoid certain vegetables that are thought to have negative properties, such as onion and garlic.” [ 274 ] A second example is the Swaminarayan Movement. The followers of this Hindu group also staunchly adhere to a diet that is devoid of meat, eggs, and seafood. [ 275 ]

Rajasthani thali.

Vegetarianism is propagated by the Yajur Veda and it is recommended for a satvic (purifying) lifestyle. [ 276 ] Thus, another reason that dietary purity is so eminent within Hinduism is because of “the idea that food reflects the general qualities of nature: purity, energy, [and] inertia.” It follows, then, that a healthy diet should be one that promotes purity within an individual. [ 274 ]

Based on this reasoning, Hindus should avoid or minimize the intake of foods that do not promote purity. These foods include onion and garlic, which are regarded as rajasic (a state which is characterized by “tension and overbearing demeanor”) foods, and meat, which is regarded as tamasic (a state which is characterized by “anger, greed, and jealousy”). [ 277 ]

Some Hindus from certain sects - generally Shakta, [ 278 ] certain Shudra and Kshatriya castes [ 279 ] [ 280 ] and certain Eastern Indian [ 281 ] and East Asian regions; [ 282 ] practise animal sacrifice ( bali ), [ 283 ] although most Hindus, including the majority of Vaishnava and Shaivite Hindus abhor it. [ 284 ]

Conversion

Extent of Hinduism beyond Hindus

Hindu practices such as yoga, ayurvedic health, divination (astrology, palmistry, numerology), tantric sexuality through Neotantra and kama sutra have reached beyond Hindu communities and have been accepted by several non-Hindus.

"Hinduism is attracting Western adherents through the affiliated practice of yoga. Yoga centers in the West—which generally advocate vegetarianism—attract young, well-educated Westerners who are drawn by yoga's benefits for the physical and emotional health; there they are introduced to the Hindu philosophical system taught by most yoga teachers, known as Vedanta." [ 285 ] "

It is estimated that around 30 million Americans and 5 million Europeans regularly practice some form of Hatha Yoga. [ 286 ] In Australia, the number of practitioners is about 300,000. [ 287 ] In New Zealand the number is also around 300,000. [ 288 ]

See also

Hinduism
Related systems and religions

Notes

  1. ^ Heinrich Zimmer: "[T]he history of Indian philosophy has been characterised largely by a series of crises of interaction between the invasic Vedic-Aryan and the non-Aryan, earlier, Dravidian styles of thought and spiritual experience." [ 9 ]
  2. ^ Sweetman mentions:
  3. ^ See Rajiv Malhotra and Being Different for a critic who gained widespread attention outside the academia.
  4. ^ Sweetman cites Richard King (1999) p.128. [ 43 ]
  5. ^ Sweetman cites Viswanathan (2003), Colonialism and the Construction of Hinduism , p.26
  6. ^ See also Sanskritization , Indo-Aryanization and Vedantification .
  7. ^ Michaels mentions Flood 1996 [ 69 ] as a source for "Prevedic Religions". [ 70 ]
  8. ^ Smart distinguishes "Brahmanism" from the Vedic religion, connecting "Brahmanism" with the Upanishads. [ 74 ]
  9. ^ For translation of deva in singular noun form as "a deity, god", and in plural form as "the gods" or "the heavenly or shining ones", see: Monier-Williams 2001 , p. 492. In fact, there are different ranks among the devas. The highest are the immortal Mahadevas, such as Shiva, Vishnu, etc. The second-rank devas, such as Ganesha, are described as their offspring: they are "born", and their "lifespan" is quite limited. In ISKCON the word is translated as "demigods", although it can also denote such heavenly denizens as gandharvas . See: "Vedic cosmology" . Vedic Knowledge Online . VEDA - Bhaktivedanta Book Trust . Retrieved 2007-06-25 .   . For translation of devatā as "godhead, divinity", see: Monier-Williams 2001 , p. 495.

Rujukan

  1. ^ a b c Merriam-Webster's Collegiate Encyclopedia , Merriam-Webster, 2000, p. 751  
  2. ^ a b Hinduism is variously defined as a "religion", "set of religious beliefs and practices", "religious tradition" etc. For a discussion on the topic, see: "Establishing the boundaries" in Gavin Flood (2003), pp. 1-17.
  3. ^ Georgis, Faris (2010). Alone in Unity: Torments of an Iraqi God-Seeker in North America . Dorrance Publishing. p. 62. ISBN 1-4349-0951-4 .  
  4. ^ Osborne 2005 , p. 9
  5. ^ Ramaswamy 1997 , p. 33.
  6. ^ a b c d Religions - Hinduism: History of Hinduism . BBC. Retrieved on 2013-07-28.
  7. ^ Rodrigues 2006 , p. 42-43.
  8. ^ Inden 2000 , p. 117.
  9. ^ Zimmer 1989 , p. 218-219.
  10. ^ Tiwari 2002 , p. vi.
  11. ^ DS Sarma, Kenneth W. Morgan, The Religion of the Hindus , 1953
  12. ^ Laderman, Gary (2003), Religion and American Cultures: An Encyclopedia of Traditions, Diversity, and Popular Expressions , Santa Barbara, Calif: ABC-CLIO, p. 119, ISBN 1-57607-238-X , "world's oldest living civilisation and religion"  
  13. ^ Turner, Jeffrey S. (1996), Encyclopedia of relationships across the lifespan , Westport, Conn: Greenwood Press, p. 359, ISBN 0-313-29576-X , "It is also recognized as the oldest major religion in the world"  
  14. ^ a b Klostermaier 1994 , p. 1
  15. ^ Encyclopedia Brittanica, Other sources: the process of "Sanskritization" .
  16. ^ "The Global Religious Landscape - Hinduism" . A Report on the Size and Distribution of the World's Major Religious Groups as of 2010 . The pew foundation . Retrieved 31 March 2013 .  
  17. ^ "Agama-agama utama Ranked oleh Saiz" . Adherents.com . Retrieved 5 March 2013 .  
  18. ^ "India", Oxford English Dictionary , second edition, 2100a.d. Oxford University Press.
  19. ^ Rig Veda
  20. ^ Subramuniyaswami, Satguru Sivaya (2003). Dancing With Siva: Hinduism's Contemporary Catechism . Himalayan Academy Publications. p. 1008. ISBN 0-945497-96-2, 9780945497967 Check |isbn= value ( help ) .  
  21. ^ Thapar, R. 1993. Interpreting Early India. Delhi: Oxford University Press. p. 77
  22. ^ Thompson Platts, John, A dictionary of Urdu, classical Hindī, and English , WH Allen & Co., Oxford University 1884  
  23. ^ O'Conell, Joseph T. (1973). "The Word 'Hindu' in Gauḍīya Vaiṣṇava Texts". Journal of the American Oriental Society 93 (3). pp. 340–344.  
  24. ^ Weightman & Klostermaier 1994 , p. 1
  25. ^ Merriam-Webster's Encyclopedia of World Religions, p. 434
  26. ^ Vaz, P. (2001), "Coexistence of Secularism and Fundamentalism in India" , Handbook of Global Social Policy (CRC Press): 124, ISBN 978-0-8247-0357-8 , retrieved 2008-06-26 , "Hinduism is the oldest of all the major world religions."  
  27. ^ Eastman, R. (1999), The Ways of Religion: An Introduction to the Major Traditions , Oxford University Press, USA  
  28. ^ a b c d Flood 2001 , Defining Hinduism
  29. ^ Smith, WC (1962) The Meaning and End of Religion. San Francisco, Harper and Row. p. 65
  30. ^ Stietencron, Hinduism: On the Proper Use of A Deceptive Term , pp.1-22
  31. ^ Halbfass, (1991) Tradition and Reflection . Albany, SUNY Press. pp. 1-22
  32. ^ Smart, (1993) The Formation Rather than the Origin of a Tradition ,in DISKUS: A Disembodied Journal of Religious Studies, vol. 1, no. 1, p. 1
  33. ^ Koller, JM (1984), "JSTOR: Philosophy East and West, Vol. 34, No. 2 (April, 1984 ), pp. 234-236", Philosophy East and West (www.jstor.org) 34 (2): 234–236, JSTOR 1398925 .  
  34. ^ Joel Beversluis (2000), Sourcebook of the World's Religions: An Interfaith Guide to Religion and Spirituality (Sourcebook of the World's Religions, 3rd ed) , Novato, Calif: New World Library, p. 50, ISBN 1-57731-121-3  
  35. ^ Hinduism in Britain Kim Knott, (2000) The South Asian Religious Diaspora in Britain, Canada, and a United States.
  36. ^ The Concise Oxford Dictionary of World Religions. Ed. John Bowker. Oxford University Press, 2000;
  37. ^ Harvey, Andrew (2001), Teachings of the Hindu Mystics , Boulder: Shambhala, xiii, ISBN 1-57062-449-6  
  38. ^ Insoll, Timothy (2001), Archaeology and world religion , Routledge , ISBN 978-0-415-22155-9  
  39. ^ Bhagavad Gita , Sarvepalli Radhakrishnan : "Hinduism is not just a faith. It is the union of reason and intuition that can not be defined but is only to be experienced."
  40. ^ Bryan S. Turner "Essays on the Sociology of Fate - Page 275"
  41. ^ Ferro-Luzzi, (1991) The Polythetic-Prototype Approach to Hinduism in GD Sontheimer and H. Kulke (ed.) Hinduism Reconsidered . Delhi: Manohar. pp. 187-95
  42. ^ a b Sweetman 2004 .
  43. ^ a b King 1999 .
  44. ^ Nussbaum 2009 .
  45. ^ a b c King 1999 , p. 171.
  46. ^ King1999 , p. 169.
  47. ^ a b c d e f g h Sweetman 2004 , p. 13.
  48. ^ a b Sweetamn 2004 , p. 13.
  49. ^ Sweetman 2013 , p. 13-14.
  50. ^ Sweetman 2004 , p. 13-14.
  51. ^ a b c d e Sweetman 2004 , p. 14.
  52. ^ Sweetman 2004 , p. 14-15.
  53. ^ a b c d e Sweetman 2004 , p. 15.
  54. ^ Sweetamn 2004 , p. 15, 16.
  55. ^ Jha, Preeti (26 December 2007). "Guinness comes to east Delhi: Akshardham world's largest Hindu temple" . ExpressIndia.com . Retrieved 2008-01-02 .  
  56. ^ Adherents.com , which itself references many sources; The World Almanac & Book of Facts 1998 being especially relevant.
  57. ^ Flood, Gavin. D. 1996. An introduction to Hinduism. 1996. P.14
  58. ^ J. McDaniel Hinduism , in John Corrigan, The Oxford Handbook of Religion and Emotion , (2007) Oxford University Press, 544 pages, pp. 52-53 ISBN 0-19-517021-0
  59. ^ a b c d Michaels 2004 , p. 21.
  60. ^ a b c d e Michaels 2004 , p. 23.
  61. ^ a b c d Michaels 2004 , p. 22.
  62. ^ a b c d Michaels 2004 , p. 24.
  63. ^ a b Khanna 2007 , p. xvii.
  64. ^ Misra 2004 , p. 194.
  65. ^ Kulke 2004 , p. 7.
  66. ^ Flood 1996 , p. 21.
  67. ^ a b Smart 2003 , p. 52-53.
  68. ^ a b c Michaels 2004 , p. 32.
  69. ^ a b Flood 1996 .
  70. ^ Michaels 2004 , p. 31, 348.
  71. ^ Muesse 2003 .
  72. ^ a b Muesse 2011 .
  73. ^ Muesse 2011 , p. 16.
  74. ^ Smart 2003 , p. 52, 83-86.
  75. ^ Smart 2003 , p. 52.
  76. ^ Michaels 2004 , p. 36.
  77. ^ a b Michaels 2004 , p. 38.
  78. ^ Muesse 2011 , p. 115.
  79. ^ Muesse 2003 , p. 14.
  80. ^ Muesse 2003 , p. 15.
  81. ^ a b c Michaels 2004 .
  82. ^ Flood & 1996 21-22 .
  83. ^ Michaels 2004 , p. 39.
  84. ^ Michaels 2004 , p. 40.
  85. ^ Michaels 2004 , p. 41.
  86. ^ a b Michaels 2004 , p. 43.
  87. ^ a b Michaels 2004 , p. 45.
  88. ^ a b c Nikhilananda 1990 , pp. 3–8
  89. ^ "Hindu History" The BBC names a bath and phallic symbols of the Harappan civilisation as features of the "Prehistoric religion (3000-1000 BCE)".
  90. ^ Invasion of the Genes Genetic Heritage of India, p. 184, by BS Ahloowalia, Strategic Book Publishing, 30 Oct 2009. "Elements of Vedic religion go back to Proto-Indo-European times."
  91. ^ Indo-European sacred space: Vedic and Roman cult, p. 242, by Roger D. Woodard, University of Illinois Press, 25 Sep 2006. "Vedic and Roman religious practice both continue a Proto-Indo-European doctrine and cultic use of dual sacred spaces"
  92. ^ The Wiley-Blackwell Companion to Religion and Social Justice, p. 18, by Michael D. Palmer and Stanley M. Burgess, John Wiley & Sons, 3 Apr 2012. "The Vedas are a collection of religious texts brought to India by the Indo-European peoples, various tribes that moved into India perhaps from about 2000 BCE onwards."
  93. ^ Hindu History "...the language of vedic culture was vedic Sanskrit, which is related to other languages in the Indo-European language group. This suggests that Indo-European speakers had a common linguistic origin known by scholars as Proto-Indo-European."
  94. ^ T. Oberlies ( Die Religion des Rgveda , Vienna 1998. p. 158) based on 'cumulative evidence' sets wide range of 1700–1100.
  95. ^ Singh, Upinder (2008), A History of Ancient and Early Medieval India: From the Stone Age to the 12th Century , Pearson Education India, p. 195, ISBN 978-81-317-1120-0  
  96. ^ Brockington, JL (1984), The Sacred Thread: Hinduism in its Continuity and Diversity , Edinburgh University Press, p. 7  
  97. ^ Krishnananda. Swami. A Short History of Religious and Philosophic Thought in India, Divine Life Society. p. 21
  98. ^ Holdrege (2004:215). Conformity with Ṛta would enable progress whereas its violation would lead to punishment. Panikkar (2001:350-351) remarks: {{quote| Ṛta is the ultimate foundation of everything; it is "the supreme", although this is not to be understood in a static sense. [...] It is the expression of the primordial dynamism that is inherent in everything...."
  99. ^ Day, Terence P. (1982). The Conception of Punishment in Early Indian Literature . Ontario: Wilfrid Laurier University Press. P. 42-45. ISBN 0-919812-15-5 .
  100. ^ Duchesne-Guillemin 1963 , p. 46.
  101. ^ a b Neusner, Jacob (2009), World Religions in America: An Introduction , Westminster John Knox Press, ISBN 978-0-664-23320-4  
  102. ^ Melton, J. Gordon; Baumann, Martin (2010), Religions of the World, Second Edition: A Comprehensive Encyclopedia of Beliefs and Practices , ABC-CLIO, p. 1324, ISBN 978-1-59884-204-3  
  103. ^ Mahadevan, TM P (1956), Sarvepalli Radhakrishnan, ed., History of Philosophy Eastern and Western , George Allen & Unwin Ltd, p. 57  
  104. ^ Fowler, Jeaneane D. (1 February 2012). The Bhagavad Gita: A Text and Commentary for Students . Sussex Academic Press. pp. xxii–xxiii. ISBN 978-1-84519-346-1 .  
  105. ^ Flood, Gavin D. (1996), An Introduction to Hinduism , Cambridge University Press, p. 82, ISBN 978-0-521-43878-0  
  106. ^ Flood, Gavin. Olivelle, Patrick. 2003. The Blackwell Companion to Hinduism. Malden: Blackwell. pg. 273-4. "The second half of the first millennium BCE was the period that created many of the ideological and institutional elements that characterize later Indian religions. The renouncer tradition played a central role during this formative period of Indian religious history....Some of the fundamental values and beliefs that we generally associate with Indian religions in general and Hinduism in particular were in part the creation of the renouncer tradition. These include the two pillars of Indian theologies: samsara - the belief that life in this world is one of suffering and subject to repeated deaths and births (rebirth); moksa/nirvana - the goal of human existence....."
  107. ^ Pratt, James Bissett (1996), The Pilgrimage of Buddhism and a Buddhist Pilgrimage , Asian Educational Services, p. 90, ISBN 978-81-206-1196-2  
  108. ^ "Itihasas" . ReligionFacts . Retrieved 1 October 2011 .  
  109. ^ Radhakrishnan & Moore 1967 , p. xviii–xxi
  110. ^ Sharma, Peri Sarveswara (1980). Anthology of Kumārilabhaṭṭa's Works . Delhi, Motilal Banarsidass. p. 5.  
  111. ^ "Consciousness in Advaita Vedānta ," By William M. Indich, Motilal Banarsidass Publishers, 1995, ISBN 81-208-1251-4 .
  112. ^ "Gandhi And Mahayana Buddhism" . Class.uidaho.edu . Retrieved 2011-06-10 .  
  113. ^ Bhattacharya, Ramkrishna (15 December 2011). Studies on the Carvaka/Lokayata . Anthem Press. p. 65. ISBN 978-0-85728-433-4 .  
  114. ^ Vijay Nath, From 'Brahmanism' to 'Hinduism': Negotiating the Myth of the Great Tradition , Social Scientist 2001, pp. 19-50.
  115. ^ Inden, Ronald. "Ritual, Authority, And Cycle Time in Hindu Kingship." In JF Richards, ed., Kingship and Authority in South Asia . New Delhi: Oxford University Press, 1998, p.67, 55 "before the eighth century, the Buddha was accorded the position of universal deity and ceremonies by which a king attained to imperial status were elaborate donative ceremonies entailing gifts to Buddhist monks and the installation of a symbolic Buddha in a stupa....This pattern changed in the eighth century. The Buddha was replaced as the supreme, imperial deity by one of the Hindu gods (except under the Palas of eastern India, the Buddha's homeland)...Previously the Buddha had been accorded imperial-style worship (puja). Now as one of the Hindu gods replaced the Buddha at the imperial centre and pinnacle of the cosmo-political system, the image or symbol of the Hindu god comes to be housed in a monumental temple and given increasingly elaborate imperial-style puja worship."
  116. ^ Holt, John. The Buddhist Visnu . Columbia University Press, 2004, p.12,15 "The replacement of the Buddha as the "cosmic person" within the mythic ideology of Indian kingship, as we shall see shortly, occurred at about the same time the Buddha was incorporated and subordinated within the Brahmanical cult of Visnu."
  117. ^ a b Basham 1999
  118. ^ Goel, Sita (1993), Tipu Sultan: villain or hero? : an anthology , Voice of India, p. 38, ISBN 978-81-85990-08-8  
  119. ^ Sharma, Hari (1991), The real Tipu: a brief history of Tipu Sultan , Rishi publications, p. 112  
  120. ^ Purushottam (199?), Must India go Islamic? , PS Yog  
  121. ^ "Aurangzeb: Religious Policies" . Manas Group, UCLA . Retrieved 2011-06-26 .  
  122. ^ Studies in Islamic History and Civilisation, David Ayalon, BRILL, 1986, p.271; ISBN 965-264-014-X
  123. ^ "Halebidu - Temples of Karnataka" . TempleNet.com . Retrieved 2006-08-17 .  
  124. ^ "The Marathas" . Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc.  
  125. ^ Maratha (people) - Britannica Online Encyclopaedia
  126. ^ JTF Jordens, "Medieval Hindu Devotionalism" in & Basham 1999
  127. ^ Weightman 1998 , pp. 262–264 "It is Hindu self-awareness and self-identity that affirm Hinduism to be one single religious universe, no matter how richly varied its contents, and make it a significant and potent force alongside the other religions of the world."
  128. ^ Olson, Carl (2007). The many colours of Hinduism: a thematic-historical introduction . Rutgers University Press. p. 9. ISBN 978-0-8135-4068-9 .  
  129. ^ Andrews, Margaret; Boyle, Joyceen (2008). Transcultural concepts in nursing care . Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. p. 386. ISBN 978-0-7817-9037-6 .  
  130. ^ Dogra, RC; Dogra, Urmila (2003). Let's know Hinduism: the oldest religion of infinite adaptability and diversity . Star Publications. p. 5. ISBN 978-81-7650-056-2 .  
  131. ^ Badlani, Hiro (2008), Hinduism: Path of the Ancient Wisdom , iUniverse , p. 303, ISBN 978-0-595-70183-4  
  132. ^ Lane, Jan-Erik; Ersson, Svante (2005), Culture and politics: a comparative approach (Edition 2) , Ashgate Publishing, Ltd, p. 149, ISBN 978-0-7546-4578-8  
  133. ^ de Lingen, John; Ramsurrun, Pahlad, An Introduction to The Hindu Faith , Sterling Publishers Pvt. Ltd, p. 2, ISBN 978-81-207-4086-0  
  134. ^ Murthy, BS (2003), Puppets of Faith: theory of communal strife , Bulusu Satyanarayana Murthy, p. 7, ISBN 978-81-901911-1-1  
  135. ^ "India and Hinduism" . Religion of World . ThinkQuest Library . Retrieved 2007-07-17 .  
  136. ^ Brodd, Jefferey (2003), World Religions , Winona, MN: Saint Mary's Press, ISBN 978-0-88489-725-5  
  137. ^ Rogers, Peter (2009), Ultimate Truth, Book 1 , AuthorHouse, p. 109, ISBN 978-1-4389-7968-7  
  138. ^ Chakravarti, Sitansu (1991), Hinduism, a way of life , Motilal Banarsidass Publ., p. 71, ISBN 978-81-208-0899-7  
  139. ^ "Polytheism" . Encyclopædia Britannica . Encyclopædia Britannica Online. 2007. Retrieved 2007-07-05 .  
  140. ^ Pattanaik, Devdutt (2002), The man who was a woman and other queer tales of Hindu lore , Routledge, p. 38, ISBN 978-1-56023-181-3  
  141. ^ See Michaels 2004 , p. xiv and Gill, NS "Henotheism" . About, Inc . Retrieved 2007-07-05 .  
  142. ^ Kenneth, Kramer (1986), World scriptures: an introduction to comparative religions , p. 34, ISBN 978-0-8091-2781-8  
  143. ^ Subodh Varma (6 May 2011). "The gods came afterwards" . Times of India . Retrieved 2011-06-09 .  
  144. ^ a b Monier-Williams 1974 , pp. 20–37
  145. ^ a b c & Bhaskarananda 1994
  146. ^ Vivekananda 1987
  147. ^ Werner 1994 , p. p37
  148. ^ See Theistic Explanations of Karma, pg. 146 of Causation and Divine Intervention by BR Reichenbach, citing Uddyotakara, Nyaayavaarttika, IV, 1, 21, at http://ccbs.ntu.edu.tw/FULLTEXT/JR-PHIL/reiche2.htm
  149. ^ Reichenbach, Bruce R. (April 1989), "Karma, causation, and divine intervention" , Philosophy East and West (Hawaii: University of Hawaii Press) 39 (2): 135–149 [145], doi : 10.2307/1399374 , retrieved 2009-12-29 .  
  150. ^ Neville, Robert (2001), Religious truth , p. 47, ISBN 978-0-7914-4778-9  
  151. ^ Werner 1994 , p. 7
  152. ^ a b c d Monier-Williams 2001
  153. ^ Lisa Hark, Lisa Hark, PH.D., RD, Horace DeLisser, MD (7 September 2011). Achieving Cultural Competency . John Wiley & Sons. "Three gods, Brahma, Vishnu, and Shiva, and other deities are considered manifestations of and are worshipped as incarnations of Brahman."  
  154. ^ John McCannon (1 January 2006). World History Examination . Barron's Educational Series. "In addition to the Brahman, Hinduism recognizes literally hundreds of gods and goddesses. Thus, Hinduism is a polytheistic religion. However, Hindus consider all deities to be avatars, or incarnations of the Brahman."  
  155. ^ Brandon Toropov, Luke Buckles (3 May 2012). The Complete Idiot's Guide to World Religions . Penguin. "The members of various Hindu sects worship a dizzying number of specific deities and follow innumerable rituals in honor of specific gods. Because this is Hinduism, however, its practitioners see the profusion of forms and practices as expressions of the same unchanging reality. The panoply of deities are understood by believers as symbols for a single transcendent reality."  
  156. ^ Orlando O. Espín, James B. Nickoloff (2007). An Introductory Dictionary of Theology and Religious Studies . Liturgical Press. "The devas are powerful spiritual beings, somewhat like angels in the West, who have certain functions in the cosmos and live immensely long lives. Certain devas, such as Ganesha, are regularly worshiped by the Hindu faithful. Note that, while Hindus believe in many devas, many are monotheistic to the extent that they will recognize only one Supreme Being, a God or Goddess who is the source and ruler of the devas."  
  157. ^ The Popular Encyclopædia . Blackie & Son. 1841. p. 61.  
  158. ^ The Lord'S Song Gita , Dr. Sant K. Bhatnagar, Pustak Mahal, 2009, ISBN 81-223-1032-X , ISBN 978-81-223-1032-0
  159. ^ Sen Gupta 1986 , p. viii
  160. ^ Sāṁkhyapravacana Sūtra I.92.
  161. ^ Rajadhyaksha (1959), The six systems of Indian philosophy , p. 95, "Under the circumstances God becomes an unnecessary metaphysical assumption. Naturally the Sankhyakarikas do not mention God, Vachaspati interprets this as rank atheism."  
  162. ^ Neville, Robert (2001), Religious truth , p. 51, ISBN 978-0-7914-4778-9 , "Mimamsa theorists (theistic and atheistic) decided that the evidence allegedly proving the existence of God was insufficient. They also thought the was no need to postulate a maker for the world, just as there was no need for an author to compose the Veda or an independent God to validate the Vedic rituals."  
  163. ^ Coward, Harold (2008-02), The perfectibility of human nature in eastern and western thought , p. 114, ISBN 978-0-7914-7336-8 , "For the Mimamsa the ultimate reality is nothing other than the eternal words of the Vedas. They did not accept the existence of a single supreme creator god, who might have composed the Veda. According to the Mimamsa, gods named in the Vedas have no existence apart from the mantras that speak their names. The power of the gods, then, is nothing other than the power of the mantras that name them."  
  164. ^ Werner 1994 , p. 80
  165. ^ Renou 1961 , p. 55
  166. ^ a b Harman 2004 , pp. 104–106
  167. ^ * Apte, Vaman S (1997), The Student's English-Sanskrit Dictionary (New ed.), Delhi: Motilal Banarsidas, ISBN 81-208-0300-0  
  168. ^ Smith 1991 , p. 64
  169. ^ Radhakrishnan 1996 , p. 254
  170. ^ Bhagavad Gita 2.22
  171. ^ See Bhagavad Gita XVI.8-20
  172. ^ See Vivekananda, Swami (2005), Jnana Yoga , Kessinger Publishing, ISBN 1-4254-8288-0   301-02 (8th Printing 1993)
  173. ^ Rinehart 2004 , pp. 19–21
  174. ^ Bhaskarananda 1994 , pp. 79–86
  175. ^ Europa Publications Staff (2003), The Far East and Australasia, 2003 - Regional surveys of the world , Routledge , p. 39, ISBN 978-1-85743-133-9  
  176. ^ Hindu spirituality - Volume 25 of Documenta missionalia , Editrice Pontificia Università Gregoriana, 1999, p. 1, ISBN 978-88-7652-818-7  
  177. ^ "Hinduism - Euthanasia and Suicide" . BBC. 25 August 2009.  
  178. ^ The Christian concepts of Heaven and Hell do not translate directly into Hinduism. Spiritual realms such as Vaikunta (the abode of Vishnu) or loka are the closest analogues to an eternal Kingdom of God.
  179. ^ Nikhilananda 1992
  180. ^ P. 265 What Is Hinduism? By From the Editors of Hinduism Today
  181. ^ P. 219 The A to Z of Hinduism By Bruce M. Sullivan
  182. ^ P. 141 Aspects Of Hindu Morality By Saral Jhingran
  183. ^ P. 141 Aspects Of Hindu Morality By Saral Jhingran
  184. ^ as discussed in Mahābhārata 12.161; Bilimoria et al. (eds.), Indian Ethics: Classical Traditions and Contemporary Challenges (2007), p. 103; see also Werner 1994 , Bhaskarananda 1994 , p. 7
  185. ^ The Philosophy of Hinduism : Four Objectives of Human Life ; Dharma (Right Conduct), Artha (Right Wealth), Kama (Right Desire), Moksha (Right Exit (Liberation)) , Pustak Mahal, 2006, ISBN 81-223-0945-3  
  186. ^ Swami Prabhupādā, AC Bhaktivedanta (1986), Bhagavad-gītā as it is , The Bhaktivedanta Book Trust, p. 16, ISBN 0-89213-268-X, 9780892132683 Check |isbn= value ( help )  
  187. ^ Radhakrishnan, Sarvepalli (1973). The Hindu view of life . Pennsylvania State University: Macmillan. p. 92.  
  188. ^ Sivaraman, Krishna (1997). Hindu spirituality: an encyclopedic history of the religious quest. Postclassical and modern, Volume 2 . The Crossroad Publishing Co.,. pp. 584 pages. ISBN 0-8245-0755-X, 9780824507558 Check |isbn= value ( help ) .  
  189. ^ Kodayanallur, Vanamamalai Soundara Rajan. Concise classified dictionary of Hinduism . Concept Publishing Company. ISBN 81-7022-857-3, 9788170228578 Check |isbn= value ( help ) .  
  190. ^ Macy, Joanna (1975). "The Dialectics of Desire". Numen (BRILL) 22 (2): 145–60. JSTOR 3269765 .  
  191. ^ Lorin Roche. "Love-Kama" . Retrieved 15 July 2011 .  
  192. ^ Kishore, BR (2001). Hinduism . Diamond Pocket Books (P) Ltd. p. 152. ISBN 81-288-0082-5, 9788128800825 Check |isbn= value ( help ) .  
  193. ^ a b Bhaskarananda 1994
  194. ^ For example, see the following translation of B-Gita 11.54: "My dear Arjuna, only by undivided devotional service can I be understood as I am, standing before you, and can thus be seen directly. Only in this way can you enter into the mysteries of My understanding." ( Bhaktivedanta 1997 , ch. 11.54 )
  195. ^ "One who knows that the position reached by means of analytical study can also be attained by devotional service, and who therefore sees analytical study and devotional service to be on the same level, sees things as they are." ( Bhaktivedanta 1997 , ch. 5.5 )
  196. ^ Monier-Williams 1974 , p. 116
  197. ^ Bhaskarananda 1994 , p. 157
  198. ^ Bhaskarananda 1994 , p. 137
  199. ^ arcye viṣṇau śīlā-dhīr. . . narakī saḥ .
  200. ^ Albertson, Todd (2009), The gods of business: the intersection of faith and the marketplace , p. 71, ISBN 978-0-615-13800-8  
  201. ^ a b Narendranand (Swami) (2008), Hindu spirituality: a help to conduct prayer meetings for Hindus , Jyoti Ashram, p. 51  
  202. ^ Encyclopaedia of Hindu Gods and Goddesses - Page 178, Suresh Chandra - 1998
  203. ^ Muesse, Mark W. (2011). The Hindu Traditions: A Concise Introduction . Fortress Press. p. 216. ISBN 0-8006-9790-1, 9780800697907 Check |isbn= value ( help ) .  
  204. ^ "Religious Life" . Religions of India . Global Peace Works . Retrieved 2007-04-19 .  
  205. ^ a b c d "Domestic Worship" . Country Studies . The Library of Congress. September 1995 . Retrieved 2007-04-19 .  
  206. ^ "Hindu Marriage Act, 1955" . Retrieved 2007-06-25 .  
  207. ^ a b "Life-Cycle Rituals" . Country Studies: India . The Library of Congress. September 1995 . Retrieved 2007-04-19 .  
  208. ^ Banerjee, Suresh Chandra. "Shraddha" . Banglapedia . Asiatic Society of Bangladesh . Retrieved 2007-04-20 .  
  209. ^ Garces-Foley 30
  210. ^ Fuller 2004
  211. ^ Hindu culture, custom, and ceremony , p195, Brojendra Nath Banerjee, Agam, 1978, 26 May 2009
  212. ^ a b Vivekananda 1987 , pp. 6–7 Vol I
  213. ^ a b Vivekananda 1987 , pp. 118–120 Vol III
  214. ^ Sargeant & Chapple 1984 , p. 3
  215. ^ See, for instance, René Guénon Man and His Becoming According to the Vedanta (1925 ed.), Sophia Perennis, ISBN 0-900588-62-4 , chapter 1, "General remarks on the Vedanta, p.7.
  216. ^ Note: Nyaya-Vaisheshika believe that the Vedas were created by God, not eternal.
  217. ^ Harshananda, Swami (1989), A Bird's Eye View of the Vedas, in "Holy Scriptures: A Symposium on the Great Scriptures of the World" (2nd ed.), Mylapore: Sri Ramakrishna Math, ISBN 81-7120-121-0  
  218. ^ Vivekananda 1987 , p. 374 Vol II
  219. ^ Rigveda is not only the oldest among the vedas, but is one of the earliest Indo-European texts.
  220. ^ "Swami Shivananda's mission" . Retrieved 2007-06-25 .  
  221. ^ Werner 1994 , p. 166
  222. ^ Monier-Williams 1974 , pp. 25–41
  223. ^ Sarvopaniṣado gāvo, etc. ( Gītā Māhātmya 6). Gītā Dhyānam , cited in Introduction to Bhagavad-gītā As It Is .
  224. ^ Thomas B. Coburn, Scripture" in India: Towards a Typology of the Word in Hindu Life , Journal of the American Academy of Religion , Vol. 52, No. 3 (September, 1984), pp. 435-459
  225. ^ Sawant, Ankush (1996), Manu-smriti and Republic of Plato: a comparative and critical study , Himalaya Pub. House  
  226. ^ Radhakrishnan 1993 , p. 119
  227. ^ The Bhagavad Gita , Eknath Easwaran, Edition 2, Nilgiri Press, 2007, ISBN 1-58638-019-2 , ISBN 978-1-58638-019-9
  228. ^ Coburn, Thomas B. 1984. pp. 439
  229. ^ Puranas at Sacred Texts
  230. ^ CIA-The world factbook
  231. ^ 2011 Nepal Census Report
  232. ^ Dostert, Pierre Etienne. Africa 1997 (The World Today Series). Harpers Ferry, West Virginia: Stryker-Post Publications (1997), pg. 162.
  233. ^ CIA - The World Factbook
  234. ^ CIA - The World Factbook
  235. ^ Bhutan
  236. ^ Suriname
  237. ^ Department of Census and Statistics, The Census of Population and Housing of Sri Lanka-2011
  238. ^ "SVRS 2010" . Bangladesh Bureau of Statistics . Retrieved 2 September 2012 .  
  239. ^ CIA - The World Factbook
  240. ^ Singapore Department of Statistics (12 January 2011). "Census of population 2010: Statistical Release 1 on Demographic Characteristics, Education, Language and Religion" . Retrieved 16 January 2011 .  
  241. ^ CIA - The World Factbook
  242. ^ "Padmanabhaswamy Temple - Assets" . Padmanabhaswamy Temple . Retrieved 2011-12-19 .  
  243. ^ Werner 1994 , p. 73
  244. ^ Hindu Way of Life
  245. ^ Heart of Hinduism: The Smarta Tradition
  246. ^ Banerji 1992 , p. 2
  247. ^ Hacker, Paul; Halbfass, Wilhelm (1995), Philology and Confrontation: Paul Hacker on Traditional and Modern Vedānta , SUNY Press, p. 264, ISBN 978-0-7914-2581-7  
  248. ^ Sri Aurobindo (2000), Essays On The Gita , Sri Aurobindo Ashram Publ., p. 517, ISBN 978-81-7058-613-5  
  249. ^ Cornelissen, RM Matthijs; Misra, Girishwar; Varma, Suneet (2011), Foundations of Indian Psychology Volume 2: Practical Applications , Pearson Education India, p. 116, ISBN 978-81-317-3085-0  
  250. ^ Manu Smriti Laws of Manu 1.87-1.91
  251. ^ Silverberg 1969 , pp. 442–443
  252. ^ Smelser & Lipset 2005
  253. ^ Smith, Huston (1994). "Hinduism: The Stations of Life". New York, New York, USA: HarperCollins. ISBN 0-06-067440-7 .   Unknown parameter |name= ignored ( |author= suggested) ( help )
  254. ^ Michaels 2004 , pp. 188–197
  255. ^ V, Jayaram. "The Hindu Caste System" . Hinduwebsite . Retrieved 28 November 2012 .  
  256. ^ Venkataraman,, Swaminathan; Pawan Deshpande. "Hinduism: Not Cast In Caste" . Hindu American Foundation . Retrieved 28 November 2012 . "Caste-based discrimination does exist in many parts of India today.... Caste-based discrimination fundamentally contradicts the essential teaching of Hindu sacred texts that divinity is inherent in all beings"   More than one of |author= and |last= specified ( help )
  257. ^ Nikhilananda 1992 , p. 155
  258. ^ P. 143 Aspects Of Hindu Morality By Saral Jhingran
  259. ^ SS Rama Rao Pappu, "Hindu Ethics", in Rinehart 2004 , pp. 165–168
  260. ^ a b Bhaskarananda 1994 , p. 112
  261. ^ Michaels 2004 , p. 316
  262. ^ Monier-Williams, Religious Thought and Life in India (New Delhi, 1974 edition)
  263. ^ Radhakrishnan, S (1929), Indian Philosophy, Volume 1 , Muirhead library of philosophy (2nd ed.), London: George Allen and Unwin Ltd., p. 148  
  264. ^ For ahiṃsā as one of the "emerging ethical and religious issues" in the Mahābhārata see: Brockington, John, "The Sanskrit Epics", in Flood (2003), p. 125.
  265. ^ For text of YS 2.29 and translation of yama as "vow of self-restraint", see: Taimni, IK (1961), The Science of Yoga , Adyar, India: The Theosophical Publishing House, ISBN 81-7059-212-7   , p. 206.
  266. ^ अहिंसा सत्यमस्तेयं शौचमिन्द्रियनिग्रहः। एतं सामासिकं धर्मं चातुर्वर्ण्येऽब्रवीन् मनु, ahimsâ satyamstenam shaucmindrayanigrahah, etam sâmâsikam dharmam câturvanaryabravîn manu
  267. ^ The Laws of Manu X
  268. ^ Surveys studying food habits of Indians include: "Diary and poultry sector growth in India" , "Indian consumer patterns" and "Agri reform in India" . Results indicate that Indians who eat meat do so infrequently with less than 30% consuming non-vegetarian foods regularly, although the reasons may be economical.
  269. ^ Fox, Michael Allen (1999), Deep Vegetarianism , Temple University Press, ISBN 1-56639-705-7  
  270. ^ Yadav, Y.; Kumar, S (14 August 2006). "The food habits of a nation" . The Hindu . Retrieved 2006-11-17 .  
  271. ^ Walker 1968:257
  272. ^ Richman 1988:272
  273. ^ Krishnakumar, R. (30 August–September 12, 2003). "Beef without borders" . Frontline (Narasimhan Ram) . Retrieved 2006-10-07 .  
  274. ^ a b Narayanan, Vasudha. “The Hindu Tradition”. In A Concise Introduction to World Religions, ed. Willard G. Oxtoby and Alan F. Segal. New York: Oxford University Press, 2007
  275. ^ Williams, Raymond. An Introduction to Swaminarayan Hinduism. 1st. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2001. 159
  276. ^ Michael Keene (2002), Religion in Life and Society , Folens Limited, p. 122, ISBN 978-1-84303-295-3 , retrieved 18 May 2009  
  277. ^ Rosen, Steven. Essential Hinduism. 1st. Westport: Praeger Publishers, 2006. Page 188
  278. ^ Harold F., Smith (1 Jan 2007), "12", Outline of Hinduism , Read Books, ISBN 1-4067-8944-5  
  279. ^ Smith, David Whitten; Burr, Elizabeth Geraldine (28 Dec 2007), "One", Understanding world religions: a road map for justice and peace , Rowman & Littlefield, p. 12, ISBN 0-7425-5055-9  
  280. ^ Kamphorst Janet (5 Jun 2008), "9", In praise of death: history and poetry in medieval Marwar (South Asia) , Leiden University Press, p. 287, ISBN 90-8728-044-0  
  281. ^ Fuller Christopher John (2004), "4" , The camphor flame: popular Hinduism and society in India (Revised and Expanded ed.), Princeton University Press, p. 83, ISBN 978-0-691-12048-5  
  282. ^ Gouyon Anne; Bumi Kita Yayasan (30 Sep 2005), "The Hiden Life of Bali" , The natural guide to Bali: enjoy nature, meet the people, make a difference , Equinox Publishing (Asia) Pte Ltd, p. 51, ISBN 979-3780-00-2 , retrieved 12 August 2010  
  283. ^ Fuller CJ (26 July 2004), "4 Sacrifice", The Camphor Flame: Popular Hinduism and Society in India [Paperback] (Revised ed.), Princeton University Press, p. 83, ISBN 0-691-12048-X  
  284. ^ "Religious or Secular: Animal Slaughter a Shame" . The Hindu American foundation . 2009 . Retrieved 30 July 2010 .  
  285. ^ Changing the Game: Why the Battle for Animal Liberation Is So Hard and How We Can Win It By Norm Phelps
  286. ^ P. 250 Educational Opportunities in Integrative Medicine: The a to Z Healing Arts Guide and Professional Resource Directory By Douglas A. Wengell
  287. ^ "Yoga Therapy in Australia" by Leigh Blashki, MHSc.
  288. ^ "The Growing Global Interest In Yoga" Monday 16th April 2012

Sumber

  • Banerji, SC (1992), Tantra in Bengal (Second Revised and Enlarged ed.), Delhi: Manohar, ISBN 81-85425-63-9  
  • Basham, AL (1999), A Cultural History of India , Oxford University Press , ISBN 0-19-563921-9  
  • Bhaktivedanta, AC (1997), Bhagavad-Gita As It Is , Bhaktivedanta Book Trust, ISBN 0-89213-285-X , retrieved 2007-07-14  
  • Bhaskarananda, Swami (1994), The Essentials of Hinduism: a comprehensive overview of the world's oldest religion , Seattle, WA: Viveka Press, ISBN 1-884852-02-5   [ unreliable source? ]
  • Bhattacharyya, NN (1999), History of the Tantric Religion (Second Revised ed.), Delhi: Manohar publications, ISBN 81-7304-025-7  
  • Chidbhavananda, Swami (1997), The Bhagavad Gita , Sri Ramakrishna Tapovanam  
  • Duchesne-Guillemin, Jacques (1963), "Heraclitus and Iran", History of Religions 3 (1): 34–49, doi : 10.1086/462470  
  • Eliot, Sir Charles (2003), Hinduism and Buddhism: An Historical Sketch I (Reprint ed.), Munshiram Manoharlal, ISBN 81-215-1093-7  
  • Flood, Gavin D. (1996), An Introduction to Hinduism , Cambridge University Press  
  • Fuller, CJ (2004), The Camphor Flame: Popular Hinduism and Society in India , Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, ISBN 978-0-691-12048-5  
  • Growse, Frederic Salmon (1996), Mathura - A District Memoir (Reprint ed.), Asian Educational Services  
  • Garces-Foley, Katherine (2005), Death and religion in a changing world , ME Sharpe  
  • Guénon, René (1921), Introduction to the Study of the Hindu Doctrines (1921 ed.), Sophia Perennis, ISBN 0-900588-74-8  
  • Guénon, René , Studies in Hinduism (1966 ed.), Sophia Perennis, ISBN [[Special:BookSources/0-900588-69-3|0-900588-69-3 [[Category:Articles with invalid ISBNs]]]] Check |isbn= value ( help )  
  • Guénon, René , Man and His Becoming According to the Vedanta (1925 ed.), Sophia Perennis, ISBN 0-900588-62-4  
  • Hoiberg, Dale (2001), Students' Britannica India , Popular Prakashan, ISBN 0-85229-760-2  
  • Imagining India , C. Hurst & Co. Publishers, 2000   Text " last Inden " ignored ( help )
  • Khanna, Meenakshi (2007), Cultural History Of Medieval India , Berghahn Books  
  • King, Richard (1999), Orientalism and Religion: Post-Colonial Theory, India and "The Mystic East" , Routledge  
  • Kulke, Hermann; Rothermund, Dietmar (2004), A History of India , Routledge  
  • Kuruvachira, Jose (2006), Hindu nationalists of modern India , Rawat publications, ISBN 81-7033-995-2  
  • Michaels, Axel (2004), Hinduism. Past and present , Princeton, New Jersey: Princeton University Press  
  • Misra, Amalendu (2004), Identity and Religion: Foundations of Anti-Islamism in India , SAGE  
  • Monier-Williams, Monier (2001), English Sanskrit dictionary , Delhi: Motilal Banarsidass, ISBN 81-206-1509-3 , retrieved 2007-07-24  
  • Morgan, Kenneth W.; Sarma, DS (1953), The Religion of the Hindus , Ronald Press  
  • Muesse, Mark William (2003), Great World Religions: Hinduism  
  • Muesse, Mark W. (2011), The Hindu Traditions: A Concise Introduction , Fortress Press  
  • Nikhilananda, Swami (1990), The Upanishads: Katha, Iśa, Kena, and Mundaka I (5th ed.), New York: Ramakrishna-Vivekananda Centre, ISBN 0-911206-15-9  
  • Nikhilananda, Swami (trans.) (1992), The Gospel of Sri Ramakrishna (8th ed.), New York: Ramakrishna-Vivekananda Centre, ISBN 0-911206-01-9  
  • Oberlies, T (1999), Die Religion des Rgveda , Vienna: Institut für Indologie der Universität Wien, ISBN 3-900271-32-1  
  • Osborne, E (2005), Accessing RE Founders & Leaders, Buddhism, Hinduism and Sikhism Teacher's Book Mainstream , Folens Limited  
  • Radhakrishnan, S ; Moore, CA (1967), A sourcebook in Indian Philosophy , Princeton University Press, ISBN 0-691-01958-4  
  • Radhakrishnan, S (Trans.) (1995), Bhagvada Gita , Harper Collins , ISBN 1-85538-457-4  
  • Radhakrishnan, S (1996), Indian Philosophy 1 , Oxford University Press, ISBN 0-19-563820-4  
  • Ramaswamy, Sumathi (1997), Passions of the Tongue: Language Devotion in Tamil India, 1891-1970 , University of California Press  
  • Ramstedt, Martin (2004), Hinduism in Modern Indonesia: A Minority Religion Between Local, National, and Global Interests , New York: Routledge  
  • Rawat, Ajay S. (1993), StudentMan and Forests: The Khatta and Gujjar Settlements of Sub-Himalayan Tarai , Indus Publishing  
  • Richman, Paula (1988), Women, branch stories, and religious rhetoric in a Tamil Buddhist text , Buffalo, NY: Maxwell School of Citizenship and Public Affairs, Syracuse University, ISBN 0-915984-90-3  
  • Rodrigues, Hillary (2006), Hinduism: the Ebook , JBE Online Books  
  • Sargeant, Winthrop; Chapple, Christopher (1984), The Bhagavad Gita , New York: State University of New York Press, ISBN 0-87395-831-4  
  • Sen Gupta, Anima (1986), The Evolution of the Sāṃkhya School of Thought , South Asia Books, ISBN 81-215-0019-2  
  • Silverberg, James (1969), "Social Mobility in the Caste System in India: An Interdisciplinary Symposium", The American Journal of Sociology 75 (3): 442–443, doi : 10.1086/224812  
  • Smart, Ninian (2003), Godsdiensten van de wereld (The World's religions) , Kampen: Uitgeverij Kok  
  • Smelser, N.; Lipset, S., eds. (2005), Social Structure and Mobility in Economic Development , Aldine Transaction, ISBN 0-202-30799-9  
  • Smith, Huston (1991), The World's Religions: Our Great Wisdom Traditions , San Francisco: HarperSanFrancisco, ISBN 0-06-250799-0  
  • Sweetman, Will (2004), "The prehistory of Orientalism: Colonialism and the Textual Basis for Bartholomaus Ziegenbalg's Account of Hinduism", New Zealand Journal of Asian Studies 6, 2 (December, 2004): 12-38  
  • Tiwari, Shiv Kumar (2002), Tribal Roots Of Hinduism , Sarup & Sons  
  • Vasu, Srisa Chandra (1919), The Catechism Of Hindu Dharma , New York: Kessinger Publishing, LLC  
  • Vivekananda, Swami (1987), Complete Works of Swami Vivekananda , Calcutta: Advaita Ashrama, ISBN 81-85301-75-1  
  • Walker, Benjamin (1968), The Hindu world: an encyclopedic survey of Hinduism , Praeger  
  • Zimmer, Heinrich (1989), Philosophies of India , Princeton University Press  

Further reading

External links

Listen to this article (4 parts) · (info)
Part 1Part 2Part 3Part 4
This audio file was created from a revision of the " Hinduism " article dated 2006-03-03, and does not reflect subsequent edits to the article. ( bantuan Audio )
Artikel yang lebih bercakap
Audio'